Determination of the full-length thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) structure by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) is described. The TSHR complexed with human monoclonal TSHR autoantibody K1-70™ (a powerful inhibitor of TSH action) was detergent solubilised, purified to homogeneity and analysed by cryo-EM. The structure (global resolution 3.3 Å) is a monomer with all three domains visible: leucine-rich domain (LRD), hinge region (HR) and transmembrane domain (TMD). The TSHR extracellular domain (ECD, composed of the LRD and HR) is positioned on top of the TMD extracellular surface. Extensive interactions between the TMD and ECD are observed in the structure, and their analysis provides an explanation of the effects of various TSHR mutations on TSHR constitutive activity and on ligand-induced activation. K1-70™ is seen to be well clear of the lipid bilayer. However, superimposition of M22™ (a human monoclonal TSHR autoantibody which is a powerful stimulator of the TSHR) on the cryo-EM structure shows that it would clash with the bilayer unless the TSHR HR rotates upwards as part of the M22™ binding process. This rotation could have an important role in TSHR stimulation by M22™ and as such provides an explanation as to why K1-70™ blocks the binding of TSH and M22™ without activating the receptor itself.
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Ricardo Núñez Miguel, Paul Sanders, Lloyd Allen, Michele Evans, Matthew Holly, William Johnson, Andrew Sullivan, Jane Sanders, Jadwiga Furmaniak, and Bernard Rees Smith
Jennifer Miller-Gallacher, Paul Sanders, Stuart Young, Andrew Sullivan, Stuart Baker, Samuel C Reddington, Matthew Clue, Katarzyna Kabelis, Jill Clark, Jane Wilmot, Daniel Thomas, Monika Chlebowska, Francesca Cole, Emily Pearson, Emma Roberts, Matthew Holly, Michele Evans, Ricardo Núñez Miguel, Michael Powell, Jane Sanders, Jadwiga Furmaniak, and Bernard Rees Smith
The crystal structures of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) leucine-rich repeat domain (amino acids 22–260; TSHR260) in complex with a stimulating human monoclonal autoantibody (M22TM) and in complex with a blocking human autoantibody (K1-70™) have been solved. However, attempts to purify and crystallise free TSHR260, that is not bound to an autoantibody, have been unsuccessful due to the poor stability of free TSHR260. We now describe a TSHR260 mutant that has been stabilised by the introduction of six mutations (H63C, R112P, D143P, D151E, V169R and I253R) to form TSHR260-JMG55TM, which is approximately 900 times more thermostable than wild-type TSHR260. These six mutations did not affect the binding of human TSHR monoclonal autoantibodies or patient serum TSHR autoantibodies to the TSHR260. Furthermore, the response of full-length TSHR to stimulation by TSH or human TSHR monoclonal autoantibodies was not affected by the six mutations. Thermostable TSHR260-JMG55TM has been purified and crystallised without ligand and the structure solved at 2.83 Å resolution. This is the first reported structure of a glycoprotein hormone receptor crystallised without ligand. The unbound TSHR260-JMG55TM structure and the M22 and K1-70 bound TSHR260 structures are remarkably similar except for small changes in side chain conformations. This suggests that neither the mutations nor the binding of M22TM or K1-70TM change the rigid leucine-rich repeat domain structure of TSHR260. The solved TSHR260-JMG55TM structure provides a rationale as to why the six mutations have a thermostabilising effect and provides helpful guidelines for thermostabilisation strategies of other soluble protein domains.