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Renjini A Padmanabhan, Damodaranpillai P Zyju, Anand G Subramaniam, Jaya Nautiyal, and Malini Laloraya

Estrogen accounts for several biological processes in the body; embryo implantation and pregnancy being one of the vital events. This manuscript aims to unearth the nuclear role of Son of sevenless1 (SOS1), its interaction with estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the uterine nucleus during embryo implantation. SOS1, a critical cytoplasmic linker between receptor tyrosine kinase and rat sarcoma virus signaling, translocates into the nucleus via its bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) during the ‘window of implantation’ in pregnant mice. SOS1 associates with chromatin, interacts with histones, and shows intrinsic histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity specifically acetylating lysine 16 (K16) residue of histone H4. SOS1 is a coactivator of STAT3 and a co-repressor of ERα. SOS1 creates a partial mesenchymal–epithelial transition by acting as a transcriptional modulator. Finally, our phylogenetic tree reveals that the two bipartite NLS surface in reptiles and the second acetyl coenzymeA (CoA) (RDNGPG) important for HAT activity emerges in mammals. Thus, SOS1 has evolved into a moonlighting protein, the special class of multi-tasking proteins, by virtue of its newly identified nuclear functions in addition to its previously known cytoplasmic function.