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M Kämäräinen, I Leivo, M Julkunen, and M Seppälä


Progesterone-associated endometrial protein (PAEP) has been isolated from human decidualized endometrium. In-situ hybridization histochemistry was employed to determine the cellular localization of PAEP mRNA in decidua during pregnancy. PAEP mRNA was found to be expressed in the glandular epithelium of decidua spongiosa throughout pregnancy. Substantial variations in the amount of PAEP mRNA during the course of pregnancy were observed, and it was most abundant at the end of the first trimester. We also found that the PAEP gene was expressed in endometriosis and in a borderline endometrioid adenoma. As in decidual tissues, PAEP mRNA in endometriosis was abundant in the glandular compartment.

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M Angervo, P Leinonen, R Koistinen, M Julkunen, and M Seppälä


The growth-regulating actions of IGFs are modulated by their binding proteins (IGFBPs). The serum concentration of IGFBP-1 is down-regulated by insulin, and in-vitro studies have demonstrated that IGFBP-1 secretion from various tissues and cells can be stimulated by theophylline, forskolin, oestrogen and progesterone. We have studied the effects and mechanisms of thyroid hormone action on IGFBP-1 gene expression and secretion by human hepatoma cells in vitro.

Tri-iodothyronine dose-dependently enhanced IGFBP-1 secretion in serum-free HepG2 cell cultures after 24–48 h of exposure, as measured by a specific immunofluorometric assay. This was accompanied by an increase (+ 50%) in the amount of IGFBP-1 mRNA, which could be prevented by cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor. Cycloheximide transiently enhanced (+ 200%) the accumulation of IGFBP-1 mRNA at 3–12 h of incubation, when no effect of tri-iodothyronine was observed. It is concluded that thyroid hormone stimulates IGFBP-1 secretion slowly by enhancing IGFBP-1 gene expression by a protein mediator. The acute stimulation of IGFBP-1 gene transcription by cycloheximide associates this gene with a number of growth-related genes encoding growth- and tumour-associated peptides.