Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) was isolated from islet amyloid deposits in patients with insulinoma and pancreatic islets of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and several reports suggested that it may contribute to the development of NIDDM. IAPP is mainly expressed and synthesized in pancreatic B cells and cosecreted with insulin, so analysis of the transcriptional regulation of the IAPP gene would be helpful for the elucidation of pancreatic B cell specific gene expression. The mouse IAPP gene spans about 5·8 kb and, like the human and rat genes, it consists of three exons, and analysis of the promoter/enhancer activity of mouse IAPP gene reveals the region from − 171 to − 87 bp to be essential. Within this region, an E-box like sequence, CACCTG (− 122 to − 117 bp), and a TAAT-box like sequence, TTAATG (− 139 to − 134 bp), are thought to be important. The disruption of each sequence resulted in a severe decrease in promoter activity, although the decrease was less in the disruption of the E-box than that of TAAT-box like sequence, suggesting the latter is more important for IAPP gene transcription. Like the rat IAPP gene, the CCAAT-box, which does not exist in the human gene, was identified in the mouse gene, indicating the possibility of species difference in the IAPP gene transcriptional mechanism. An enhancer-like activity was also identified within intron 1, although further elucidation is necessary.