Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) 1–6 bind IGFs but not insulin with high affinity. They were initially identified as serum carriers and passive inhibitors of IGF actions. However, subsequent studies showed that, although IGFBPs inhibit IGF actions in many circumstances, they may also potentiate these actions. IGFBPs are widely expressed in most tissues, and they are flexible endocrine and autocrine/paracrine regulators of IGF activity, which is essential for this important physiological system. More recently, individual IGFBPs have been shown to have IGF-independent actions. Mechanisms underlying these actions include (i) interaction with non-IGF proteins in compartments including the extracellular space and matrix, the cell surface and intracellular space, (ii) interaction with and modulation of other growth factor pathways including EGF, TGF-β and VEGF, and (iii) direct or indirect transcriptional effects following nuclear entry of IGFBPs. Through these IGF-dependent and IGF-independent actions, IGFBPs modulate essential cellular processes including proliferation, survival, migration, senescence, autophagy and angiogenesis. They have been implicated in a range of disorders including malignant, metabolic, neurological and immune diseases. A more complete understanding of their cellular roles may lead to the development of novel IGFBP-based therapeutic opportunities.
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G J Price, J L Berka, G A Werther, and L A Bach
Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in the rat causes early renal enlargement preceded by a transient elevation in IGF-I content and an increase in IGF-I tissue binding. The effects of IGF-I are mainly mediated through the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) and modulated by six specific IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). We investigated the gene expression of IGF-I, IGF-IR and IGFBPs at a cellular level within the kidney using in situ hybridisation techniques in short-term (7 day) STZ-diabetic, insulin-treated euglycaemic and normal rats. In diabetes, IGFBP-1 mRNA showed markedly increased expression in distal tubules, collecting ducts and thick ascending limbs of Henle (TALs). IGF-I, and IGFBP-4 and -5 mRNAs showed site-specific tubular changes whilst remaining unchanged in other parts of the kidney normally expressing the genes: IGF-I and IGFBP-4 mRNAs were reduced in TALs and proximal tubules respectively; IGFBP-5 mRNA was reduced in most distal tubular cells but strongly expressed in a few of these cells. IGF-IR mRNA and the mRNAs for IGFBP-2, -3 and -6 were unchanged in STZ diabetes. There was no difference between control and insulin-treated kidneys. These complex changes suggest possible involvement of the IGF/IGFBP system in the early stages of diabetic renal hypertrophy.
M Phillip, H Werner, T Palese, A A Kowarski, B Stannard, L A Bach, D LeRoith, and C T Roberts Jr
Nephropathy, one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus, is characterized by an early increase in kidney size. In experimental models of diabetes, this event is preceded by a rapid and transient rise in kidney IGF-I levels, at least in adult animals. Since diabetes-associated renal changes are uncommon in young patients, we investigated the early changes in the components of the IGF system following induction of diabetes in prepubertal and postpubertal rats. The rationale for this study was the evaluation of potential differences which could lead to kidney complications only at adult stages.
Unlike the situation in the postpubertal kidney, in which there was a transient accumulation of extractable IGF-I 24–48 h after streptozotocin (STZ) administration, there was a decrease of ∼12-fold in the level of IGF-I in the prepubertal kidney over the same period of time. Paradoxically, kidney IGF-I mRNA levels were reduced by ∼50% in the postpubertal rat 24 h after STZ treatment, whereas in the prepubertal kidney IGF-I mRNA levels were unaltered. Furthermore, the levels of IGF-I receptor mRNA and 125I-labelled IGF-I binding to kidney membranes of postpubertal diabetic rats were similar to the levels in control kidneys. On the other hand, both the levels of IGF-I receptor mRNA and 125I-labelled IGF-I binding were increased (∼2·5-fold (after 24 h) and ∼ 3-fold (after 48 h) respectively) in prepubertal animals. In addition, increased expression of IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1 mRNA was seen early in diabetes in both pre- and postpubertal rats.
The results of this study suggest that the transient accumulation of IGF-I in the kidney of the postpubertal diabetic rat may not be due to an increase in the local synthesis of IGF-I, but rather to an increase in IGF-I uptake from the circulation due to non-membrane-associated IGFBP-1. The lack of accumulation of IGF-I in the prepubertal kidney probably reflects the ∼ 10-fold lower levels of circulating IGF-I in young as compared with adult diabetic rats.