Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp 27) is expressed in mammary tumors and may play a role in tumor growth and response to anti-neoplastic drug therapy. 17beta-Estradiol (E2) induces Hsp 27 mRNA levels in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, and we have investigated the comparative inhibitory mechanisms using the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and the direct-acting antiestrogen ICI 164,384. TCDD inhibited E2-induced Hsp 27 gene expression and analysis of the Hsp 27 gene promoter showed that the inhibitory response was associated with AhR interactions with a pentanucleotide motif at -3 to +2 in the promoter that corresponded to the core sequence of a dioxin responsive element. In contrast, ICI 164,384 induced Hsp 27 gene expression and reporter gene activity in MCF-7 cells and this represents one of the few examples of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) agonist activity of the 'pure' antiestrogen ICI 164,384.
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W Porter, F Wang, R Duan, C Qin, E Castro-Rivera, K Kim, and S Safe
P H Watson, S T Mortimer, K K W Wang, D E Croall, and D A Hanley
Our studies suggest that protein kinase C is involved in low calcium (Ca2+)-stimulated secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) but not directly in high Ca2+-stimulated intracellular degradation of PTH to secreted carboxyl-terminal fragments (C-PTH), an important component of Ca2+-regulated PTH secretion. The present study was undertaken to determine the presence of calciumactivated proteases, 84 kDa (micro)-calpain and 80 kDa (milli)-calpain, in the bovine parathyroid, and whether they could degrade PTH to C-terminal fragments. Immunocytochemistry of bovine parathyroid tissue using antibodies raised against bovine heart micro- and milli-calpain detected both isoforms of calpain. Western blotting of total bovine parathyroid cell protein prepared from primary cell cultures confirmed the presence of both isoforms of calpain, demonstrated by specific milli- and micro-calpain bands. Purified bovine PTH (bPTH) was incubated in vitro with human erythrocyte micro-calpain and the cleavage products were separated by reverse-phase HPLC. Eluant fractions were assayed with an RIA with equimolar sensitivity to C-PTH and bPTH, and peak areas integrated. Micro-calpain produced a C-PTH peak from bPTH which co-eluted with the major C-PTH secreted by parathyroid cells in culture. C-PTH production by micro-calpain, expressed as per cent area under the curve, increased from 0% in the absence of either micro-calpain or Ca2+, to 71·5% when a 5:1 molar ratio of bPTH to calpain was used. Amino acid sequencing and analysis of the immunoreactive PTH cleavage products indicated the presence of two fragments of bPTH in the C-PTH peak, bPTH47–84 and bPTH69–84. In summary, both isoforms of calpain are present in the bovine parathyroid and calpains may play a role in the Ca2+-dependent degradation of PTH to secreted C-terminal fragments.
R Perfetti, M Raygada, Y Wang, M E Zenilman, J M Egan, K M Denno, T W Sadler, and A R Shuldiner
The pancreatic regenerating (reg) gene is proposed to be involved in pancreatic β-cell growth. Up- or down-regulation of reg gene expression has been shown to parallel variations in β-cell mass and function in the adult pancreas. In several species at least two nonallelic reg genes have been identified. In this study we investigated the expression of each individual reg gene (reg-I and reg-II) during embryogenesis in the mouse. Single mouse embryos were harvested at 8·5, 9, 10, and 12 days of development, homogenized and subjected individually to reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, with a single primer pair to amplify both reg-I and -II mRNAs. Southern blot analysis of the RT-PCR products revealed the presence of reg mRNA at day 9 of embryogenesis, just before the beginning of pancreatic organogenesis. Slot-blot analysis with internal oligonucleotide probes that specifically recognize reg-I or -II sequences demonstrated that only reg-I mRNA was present in day 9 and day 10 prepancreatic embryos. Reg-II mRNA was not detected until day 12, a stage corresponding to late organogenesis. RT-PCR for insulin mRNA from the same samples used for the amplification of reg mRNA showed that the earliest insulin expression occurred at day 8·5, and coincided with the onset of reg-I expression. Hybridization with gene-specific oligonucleotide probes revealed that only insulin-II mRNA was detectable at this time. Insulin-I mRNA was not detectable until day 12 and coincided with early reg-II expression. These results suggest that the two nonallelic reg genes and the two insulin genes are expressed differentially during early embryogenesis. Differential expression of reg-I and -II suggests that they may be induced by different and independent stimuli and have distinct functions.