We recently reported that genetic deletion of myeloperoxidase (MPO) alleviates obesity-related insulin resistance in mice in vivo. How MPO impairs insulin sensitivity in adipocytes is poorly characterized. As hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a principal oxidant product generated by MPO, we evaluated the effects of HOCl on insulin signaling in adipocytes differentiated from 3T3-L1 cells. Exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to exogenous HOCl (200 μmol/l) attenuated insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake, GLUT4 translocation, and insulin signals, including tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and phosphorylation of Akt. Furthermore, treatment with HOCl induced phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307, inhibitor κB kinase (IKK), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and phosphorylation of PKCθ (PKCθ). In addition, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of IKK and JNK abolished serine phosphorylation of IRS1 and impairment of insulin signaling by HOCl. Furthermore, knockdown of PKCθ using siRNA transfection suppressed phosphorylation of IKK and JNK and consequently attenuated the HOCl-impaired insulin signaling pathway. Moreover, activation of PKCθ by peroxynitrite was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of IKK, JNK, and IRS1-serine 307. In contrast, ONOO− inhibitors abolished HOCl-induced phosphorylation of PKCθ, IKK, JNK, and IRS1-serine 307, as well as insulin resistance. Finally, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance was associated with enhanced phosphorylation of PKCθ, IKK, JNK, and IRS1 at serine 307 in white adipose tissues from WT mice, all of which were not found in Mpo knockout mice fed HFDs. We conclude that HOCl impairs insulin signaling pathway by increasing ONOO− mediated phosphorylation of PKCθ, resulting in phosphorylation of IKK/JNK and consequent serine phosphorylation of IRS1 in adipocytes.
Jun Zhou, Qilong Wang, Ye Ding, and Ming-Hui Zou
Jun Zhou, Qilong Wang, Ye Ding, and Ming-Hui Zou
Xin-wei Chen, Ye-hong Li, Meng-jun Zhang, Zhou Chen, Dian-shan Ke, Ying Xue, and Jian-ming Hou
Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that plays an important role in promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption; however, its effects on senile osteoporosis remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of LF intervention using a senile osteoporosis model (SAMP6 mice) and senescent osteoblasts. Micro-CT and hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated that the intragastric administration (2 g/kg/day) of LF could improve the bone mass and microstructure of SAMP6 mice. Furthermore, LF treatment improved bone metabolism and increased insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) mRNA expression and activated phosphorylation status of AKT. Using osteoblasts passaged for ten generations as an in vitro senescence model, various markers associated with osteoblast formation and differentiation, as well as related indices of oxidative stress were analyzed. Our results revealed that after multiple generations, osteoblasts entered senescence, in conjunction with increased oxidative stress damage, reduced bone metabolism and enhanced expression of aging-related markers. While inhibiting oxidative stress, LF improved osteoblast proliferation by promoting the expression of osteogenesis markers, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Igf1, bone gla protein (Bglap) and osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (Opg/Rankl) mRNA and delayed senescence by decreasing the level of p16 and p21 expression. RNAI-mediated downregulation of IGF1 attenuated the effect of LF on osteogenesis. Therefore, the findings of the present study indicate that LF may promote osteogenesis via IGF1 signaling, thereby preventing senile osteoporosis.
Lingxia Pang, Lianghui You, Chenbo Ji, Chunmei Shi, Ling Chen, Lei Yang, Fangyan Huang, Yahui Zhou, Jun Zhang, Xiaohui Chen, and Xirong Guo
Excessive adipocyte differentiation and proliferation are closely associated with the onset of obesity, which has been partially linked to microRNA expression. In previous studies, using miRNA microarray screening, we found that miR-1275 was significantly decreased in human mature adipocytes. In this study, we examined the role of miR-1275 in adipogenesis. Our results indicated that miR-1275 can inhibit the differentiation of human visceral preadipocytes without affecting their proliferation. ELK1, an E-twenty-six (ETS)-domain transcription factor associated with adipocyte differentiation, was strongly suppressed by miR-1275 in human visceral adipocytes. This was demonstrated via a dual-luciferase reporter assay and pointed to ELK1 as a direct target of miR-1275. Furthermore, miR-1275 expression was significantly diminished in the visceral adipose tissue of overweight and obese human subjects accompanied by a negative correlation with body mass index. These results suggest that miR-1275 could play a future role in the management of obesity, as a novel therapeutic target or biomarker.
Yuanyuan Huang, Hanlin Zhang, Meng Dong, Lei Zhang, Jun Lin, Rongcai Ye, Huiqiao Zhou, Xiaomeng Liu, and Wanzhu Jin
White adipose tissue (WAT) browning may have beneficial effects for treating metabolic syndrome. miRNA are important regulators of the differentiation, development, and function of brown and beige adipocytes. Here, we found that the cold-inducible miRNA17-92 cluster is enriched in brown adipose tissue (BAT) compared with WAT. Overexpression of the miR17-92 cluster in C3H10T1/2 cells, a mouse mesenchymal stem cell line, enhanced the thermogenic capacity of adipocytes. Furthermore, we observed a significant reduction in adiposity in adipose tissue-specific miR17-92 cluster transgenic (TG) mice. This finding is partly explained by dramatic increases in white fat browning and energy expenditure. Interestingly, the miR17-92 cluster stimulated WAT browning without altering BAT activity in mice. In addition, when we removed the intrascapular BAT (iBAT), the TG mice could maintain their body temperature well under cold exposure. At the molecular level, we found that the miR17-92 cluster targets Rb1, a beige cell repressor in WAT. The present study reveals a critical role for the miR17-92 cluster in regulating WAT browning. These results may be helpful for better understanding the function of beige fat, which could compensate for the lack of BAT in humans, and may open new avenues for combatting metabolic syndrome.