We hypothesize that cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are involved in the modulation of metabolic regulation of food intake by fatty acids in fish. Therefore, we assessed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) the effects of intracerebroventricular treatment with 1 ng/g of CCK-8 and with 2 ng/g of GLP-1 on food intake, expression of neuropeptides involved in food intake control and the activity of fatty acid-sensing systems in hypothalamus and hindbrain. Food intake decreased up to 24 h post-treatment to 49.8–72.3% and 3.1–17.8% for CCK-8 and GLP-1, respectively. These anorectic responses are associated with changes in fatty acid metabolism and an activation of fatty acid-sensing mechanisms in the hypothalamus and hindbrain. These changes occurred in parallel with those in the expression of anorexigenic and orexigenic peptides. Moreover, we observed that the activation of fatty acid sensing and the enhanced anorectic potential elicited by CCK-8 and GLP-1 treatments occurred in parallel with the activation of mTOR and FoxO1 and the inhibition of AMPKα, BSX and CREB. The results are discussed in the context of metabolic regulation of food intake in fish.
Cristina Velasco, Sara Comesaña, Marta Conde-Sieira, Jesús M Míguez and José L Soengas
Cristina Velasco, Cristina Otero-Rodiño, Sara Comesaña, Jesús M Míguez and José L Soengas
We assessed in rainbow trout hypothalamus the effects of oleate and octanoate on levels and phosphorylation status of two transcription factors, FoxO1 and CREB, possibly involved in linking activation of fatty acid sensing with modulation of food intake through the expression of brain neuropeptides. Moreover, we assessed changes in the phosphorylation status of three proteins possibly involved in modulation of these transcription factors such as Akt, AMPK and mTOR. In a first experiment, we evaluated, in pools of hypothalamus incubated for 3 h and 6 h at 15°C in a modified Hanks’ medium containing 100 or 500 µM oleate or octanoate, the response of fatty acid sensing, neuropeptide expression and phosphorylation status of proteins of interest. The activation of fatty acid sensing and enhanced anorectic potential occurred in parallel with the activation of Akt and mTOR, and the inhibition of AMPK. The changes in these proteins would relate to a neuropeptide expression through changes in the phosphorylation status of transcription factors under their control, such as CREB and FoxO1, which displayed inhibitory (CREB) or activatory (FoxO1) responses when tissues were incubated with oleate or octanoate. In a second experiment, we incubated hypothalamus for 6 h with 500 µM oleate or octanoate alone or in the presence of specific inhibitors of Akt, AMPK, mTOR, CREB or FoxO1. The presence of inhibitors counteracted the effects of oleate or octanoate on the phosphorylation status of the proteins of interest. The results support, for the first time in fish, the involvement of these proteins in the regulation of food intake by fatty acids.