It has long been known that thyroid hormone has profound direct effects on metabolism and cardiovascular function. More recently, it was shown that the hormone also modulates these systems by actions on the central autonomic control. Recent studies that either manipulated thyroid hormone signalling in anatomical areas of the brain or analysed seasonal models with an endogenous fluctuation in hypothalamic thyroid hormone levels revealed that the hormone controls energy turnover. However, most of these studies did not progress beyond the level of anatomical nuclei; thus, the neuronal substrates as well as the molecular mechanisms remain largely enigmatic. This review summarises the evidence for a role of thyroid hormone in the central autonomic control of peripheral homeostasis and advocates novel strategies to address thyroid hormone action in the brain on a cellular level.
Amy Warner and Jens Mittag
Juliane Dinter, Jessica Mühlhaus, Simon Friedrich Jacobi, Carolin Leonie Wienchol, Maxi Cöster, Jaroslawna Meister, Carolin Stephanie Hoefig, Anne Müller, Josef Köhrle, Annette Grüters, Heiko Krude, Jens Mittag, Torsten Schöneberg, Gunnar Kleinau and Heike Biebermann
Most in vivo effects of 3-iodothyronamine (3-T1AM) have been thus far thought to be mediated by binding at the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). Inconsistently, the 3-T1AM-induced hypothermic effect still persists in Taar1 knockout mice, which suggests additional receptor targets. In support of this general assumption, it has previously been reported that 3-T1AM also binds to the α-2A-adrenergic receptor (ADRA2A), which modulates insulin secretion. However, the mechanism of this effect remains unclear. We tested two different scenarios that may explain the effect: the sole action of 3-T1AM at ADRA2A and a combined action of 3-T1AM at ADRA2A and TAAR1, which is also expressed in pancreatic islets. We first investigated a potential general signaling modification using the label-free EPIC technology and then specified changes in signaling by cAMP inhibition and MAPKs (ERK1/2) determination. We found that 3-T1AM induced Gi/o activation at ADRA2A and reduced the norepinephrine (NorEpi)-induced MAPK activation. Interestingly, in ADRA2A/TAAR1 hetero-oligomers, application of NorEpi resulted in uncoupling of the Gi/o signaling pathway, but it did not affect MAPK activation. However, 3-T1AM application in mice over a period of 6 days at a daily dose of 5 mg/kg had no significant effects on glucose homeostasis. In summary, we report an agonistic effect of 3-T1AM on the ADRA2A-mediated Gi/o pathway but an antagonistic effect on MAPK induced by NorEpi. Moreover, in ADRA2A/TAAR1 hetero-oligomers, the capacity of NorEpi to stimulate Gi/o signaling is reduced by co-stimulation with 3-T1AM. The present study therefore points to a complex spectrum of signaling modification mediated by 3-T1AM at different G protein-coupled receptors.
Sogol Gachkar, Sebastian Nock, Cathleen Geissler, Rebecca Oelkrug, Kornelia Johann, Julia Resch, Awahan Rahman, Anders Arner, Henriette Kirchner and Jens Mittag
It is well established that thyroid hormones are required for cardiovascular functions; however, the molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood, especially the individual contributions of genomic and non-genomic signalling pathways. In this study, we dissected how thyroid hormones modulate aortic contractility. To test the immediate effects of thyroid hormones on vasocontractility, we used a wire myograph to record the contractile response of dissected mouse aortas to the adrenergic agonist phenylephrine in the presence of different doses of T3 (3,3′,5-triiodothyronine). Interestingly, we observed reduced vasoconstriction under low and high T3 concentrations, indicating an inversed U-shaped curve with maximal constrictive capacity at euthyroid conditions. We then tested for possible genomic actions of thyroid hormones on vasocontractility by treating mice for 4 days with 1 mg/L thyroxine in drinking water. The study revealed that in contrast to the non-genomic actions the aortas of these animals were hyperresponsive to the contractile stimulus, an effect not observed in endogenously hyperthyroid TRβ knockout mice. To identify targets of genomic thyroid hormone action, we analysed aortic gene expression by microarray, revealing several altered genes including the well-known thyroid hormone target gene hairless. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that thyroid hormones regulate aortic tone through genomic and non-genomic actions, although genomic actions seem to prevail in vivo. Moreover, we identified several novel thyroid hormone target genes that could provide a better understanding of the molecular changes occurring in the hyperthyroid aorta.