The presence of mRNA for epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-α (TGFα) was demonstrated in small fragments of human endometrium and decidua by use of the technique of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction with nested oligonucleotide primers. The presence of mRNA encoding EGF and TGFα has not been shown in human endometrium previously. Other studies using conventional techniques, such as Northern blot or in-situ hybridization, showed the presence in low copy number of EGF but not TGFα in murine endometrium. Messenger RNA for EGF was not present in peripheral leukocytes or platelets, suggesting an endometrial source for the message. Messenger RNA for TGFα was found in these blood components, thus preventing confirmation of the source of TGFα mRNA.