Oestradiol-17β and tamoxifen regulate the synthesis of a gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP-15) in T47D human breast cancer cells. Dose-response curves of GCDFP-15 mRNA contents and GCDFP-15 levels in culture media and cells versus hormone or antihormone concentration have been established. Production of GCDFP-15 was increased by oestradiol-17β, tamoxifen and 4-OH tamoxifen. The effect of tamoxifen and 4-OH tamoxifen was greater than the effect of oestradiol-17β. Moreover, oestradiol-17β and 4-OH tamoxifen acted synergystically in enhancing GCDFP-15 release. The strong oestrogenic effect of the antioestrogen tamoxifen in regulating GCDFP-15 may reflect an unusual interaction between the tamoxifen-oestrogen receptor complex and the DNA oestrogen-responsive elements. As oestrogen control of GCDFP-15 depends also on the cell line studied, investigation of GCDFP-15 could extend our knowledge of the possible mechanism of action of oestrogens or antioestrogens.