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J A Hansen, L H Hansen, X Wang, J J Kopchick, F Gouilleux, B Groner, J H Nielsen, A Møldrup, E D Galsgaard, and N Billestrup


Stimulation of GH receptors leads to rapid activation of Jak2 kinase and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation of the GH receptor. Three specific tyrosines located in the C-terminal domain of the GH receptor have been identified as being involved in GH-stimulated transcription of the Spi 2·1 promoter. Mutated GH receptors lacking all but one of these three tyrosines are able to mediate a transcriptional response when transiently transfected into CHO cells together with a Spi 2·1 promoter/luciferase construct. Similarly, these GH receptors were found to be able to mediate activation of Stat5 DNA-binding activity, whereas the GH receptor mutant lacking all intracellular tyrosines was not. Synthetic tyrosine phosphorylated peptides corresponding to the GH receptor sequence around the three tyrosines inhibited Stat5 DNA-binding activity while their non-phosphorylated counterparts were ineffective. Tyrosine phosphorylated GST-GH receptor fusion proteins specifically bound to Stat5 in extracts from COS 7 cells transfected with Stat5 cDNA. This binding could be inhibited by tyrosine phosphorylated peptides derived from the GH receptor. This study thus demonstrated that specific GH receptor tyrosine residues, in their phosphorylated state, are involved in transcriptional signaling by directly interacting with Stat5.

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G A Martens, E Motté, G Kramer, G Stangé, L W Gaarn, K Hellemans, J H Nielsen, J M Aerts, Z Ling, and D Pipeleers

Neonatal β cells are considered developmentally immature and hence less glucose responsive. To study the acquisition of mature glucose responsiveness, we compared glucose-regulated redox state, insulin synthesis, and secretion of β cells purified from neonatal or 10-week-old rats with their transcriptomes and proteomes measured by oligonucleotide and LC-MS/MS profiling. Lower glucose responsiveness of neonatal β cells was explained by two distinct properties: higher activity at low glucose and lower activity at high glucose. Basal hyperactivity was associated with higher NAD(P)H, a higher fraction of neonatal β cells actively incorporating 3H-tyrosine, and persistently increased insulin secretion below 5 mM glucose. Neonatal β cells lacked the steep glucose-responsive NAD(P)H rise between 5 and 10 mM glucose characteristic for adult β cells and accumulated less NAD(P)H at high glucose. They had twofold lower expression of malate/aspartate-NADH shuttle and most glycolytic enzymes. Genome-wide profiling situated neonatal β cells at a developmental crossroad: they showed advanced endocrine differentiation when specifically analyzed for their mRNA/protein level of classical neuroendocrine markers. On the other hand, discrete neonatal β cell subpopulations still expressed mRNAs/proteins typical for developing/proliferating tissues. One example, delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1) was used to investigate whether neonatal β cells with basal hyperactivity corresponded to a more immature subset with high DLK1, but no association was found. In conclusion, the current study supports the importance of glycolytic NADH-shuttling in stimulus function coupling, presents basal hyperactivity as novel property of neonatal β cells, and provides potential markers to recognize intercellular developmental differences in the endocrine pancreas.