Exendin-4 (Ex-4) mimics glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 or GCG as listed in the HUGO database), being anti-diabetic and anorectic, in stimulating glucose and lipid metabolism in extrapancreatic tissues. We studied the characteristics of Ex-4 and GLP-1 action, during prolonged treatment, on GLUTs expression (mRNA and protein), glycogen content (GC), glucose transport (GT), glycogen synthase a (GSa), and kinase (PI3K and MAPKs) activity, in liver, muscle, and fat of insulin-resistant (IR, by fructose) and type 2 diabetic (T2D, streptozotocin at birth) rats compared with normal rats. In both IR and T2D, the three tissues studied presented alterations in all measured parameters. In liver, GLP-1 and also Ex-4 normalized the lower than normal Glut2 (Slc2a2) expression and showed a trend to normalize the reduced GC in IR, and GLP-1, like Ex-4, also in T2D, effects mediated by PI3K and MAPKs. In skeletal muscle, neither GLP-1 nor Ex-4 modified Glut4 (Slc2a4) expression in either experimental model but showed normalization of reduced GT and GSa, in parallel with the normalization of reduced PI3K activity in T2D and MAPKs in both models. In adipose tissue, the altered GLUT4 expression in IR and T2D, along with reduced GT in IR and increased GT in T2D, and with hyperactivated PI3K in both, became normal after GLP-1 and Ex-4 treatment; yet, MAPKs, that were also higher, became normal only after Ex-4 treatment. The data shows that Ex-4, as well as GLP-1, exerts a normalizing effect on IR and T2D states through a distinct post-receptor mechanism, the liver being the main target for Ex-4 and GLP-1 to control glucose homeostasis.
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Paola Moreno, Bernardo Nuche-Berenguer, Irene Gutiérrez-Rojas, Alicia Acitores, Verónica Sancho, Isabel Valverde, Nieves González, and María L Villanueva-Peñacarrillo
Verónica Sancho, María V Trigo, Nieves González, Isabel Valverde, Willy J Malaisse, and María L Villanueva-Peñacarrillo
Several kinases have been implicated in the metabolic response of human and rat myocytes to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), exendin-4 (Ex-4) and exendin-9 (Ex-9). We have investigated, in isolated rat adipocytes, the changes caused by GLP-1, Ex-4 and Ex-9 compared with those provoked by insulin or glucagon, upon the activity of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (PKB), p42/44 MAP kinases (MAPKs) and p70s6 kinase (p70s6k), and the participation of these kinases and protein kinase C (PKC) in their action upon 2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake, lipolysis and lipogenesis. The study was conducted in normal rats, and extended to a streptozotocin-induced type-2 diabetic model (STZ-rats). The participation of distinct kinases was estimated by using potential kinase inhibitors, including wortmannin, PD98059, rapamycin, H-7 and RO31–8220. In normal rat adipocytes, GLP-1 and both exendins share with insulin an increasing action upon the activity of all kinases studied (except PKB), PI3K, p44 and p42 MAPKs and possibly PKC, all being required for their stimulating effect upon glucose uptake. Ex-4 and Ex-9, like GLP-1 and insulin, have lipogenic action, while only Ex-4 shares with GLP-1 its lipolytic effect which is antagonized by Ex-9. MAP kinases and PKC seem to have an essential role in the GLP-1 and Ex-4 lipolytic action, as does PI3K in that of Ex-4. An increase in PI3K and MAPKs activity for the lipogenic effect of Ex-4, Ex-9 and GLP-1 are required, and in the case of Ex-4 and Ex-9, a stimulation of p70s6k activity is also needed. In cells from STZ-rats the magnitude of the above parameters was, in general, comparable to that in normal animals, with some exceptions: basal PI3K activity and lipogenesis were higher, GLP-1, Ex-4 and Ex-9 failed to modify basal lipogenesis but increased PKB activity, insulin failed to affect the activity of MAPKs and the insulin-induced glucose uptake was impaired. The impaired insulin effects upon some of the variables in the STZ-rat, distinct from those of GLP-1 and exendins, adds knowledge to the mechanism of the beneficial action of GLP-1 and Ex-4 in diabetic states.