Intracellular glucocorticoid (GC) receptor (GR) function determines tissue sensitivity to GCs and strongly affects the development of type 2 diabetes and obesity. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) mediates intracellular steroid exposure to mouse liver GR by prereceptor reactivation of GCs and is crucially dependent on hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH)-generating NADPH system. Pharmacological inhibition of 11β-HSD1 improves insulin intolerance and obesity. Here, we evaluated the potential beneficial effects of 11β-HSD1 inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX) in diet-induced obese (DIO) and insulin-resistant mice by examining the possible influence of CBX on the expression of GR, 11β-HSD1, and H6PDH in vivo and in vitro in hepatocytes. Treatment of DIO mice with CBX markedly reduced hepatic GR mRNA levels and reduced weight gain, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. The reduction of hepatic GR gene expression was accompanied by CBX-induced inhibition of both 11β-HSD1 and H6PDH activity and mRNA in the liver. Moreover, CBX treatment also suppressed the expression of both phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme (G6Pase) mRNA and improved hepatic [1, 2-3H] deoxy-d-glucose uptake in DIO mice. In addition, the treatment of primary cultures of hepatocytes with increasing concentrations of CBX led to a dose-dependent downregulation of GR mRNA levels, which correlated with the suppression of both 11β-HSD1 and H6PDH activity and their gene expression. Addition of CBX to primary hepatocytes also resulted in suppression of both PEPCK and G6Pase mRNA levels. These findings suggest that CBX exerts some of its beneficial effects, at least in part, by inhibiting hepatic GR and H6PDH expression.
Yanjun Liu, Yuichi Nakagawa, Ying Wang, Limei Liu, Hongwei Du, Wei Wang, Xiuhai Ren, Kabirullah Lutfy and Theodore C Friedman
Yousheng Xu, Yongshun Wang, Jingjin Liu, Wei Cao, Lili Li, Hongwei Du, Enbo Zhan, Ruoxi Zhang, Huimin Liu, Maoen Xu, Tao Chen, Yilin Qu and Bo Yu
The prevalence of obesity is dramatic increased and strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. Adipokines, secreted from adipose tissues, are critical risk factors for the development of cardiomyopathy. Present study aimed to investigate the pathophysiological role of autotaxin in obesity-related cardiomyopathy. In high-fat diet-fed mice, autotaxin was mainly synthesized and secreted from adipocytes. The increased accumulation of cardiac autotaxin was positively associated with cardiac dysfunction in obese mice. Interestingly, specific blockage of adipose tissue autotaxin effectively protected against high-fat diet-induced cardiac structural disorders, left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction. Inhibition of autotaxin further improved high-fat diet-induced cardiac fibrosis and mitochondrial dysfunction, including improvement of mitochondrial structure, mass and activities. Our findings demonstrated intervention of adipose tissue biology could influence cardiac modification in obese mice, and adipocyte-derived autotaxin was a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target for obesity-related cardiomyopathy.