Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the main complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), accounts for a high percentage of mortality in diabetic patients. Endothelial dysfunction is a major causative event in the pathogenesis of diabetes-related vascular disease and the earliest symptom of vascular injury. Epigenetic modification plays a key role in the initiation, maintenance, and progression of both endothelial dysfunction and diabetes. Epigenetic alterations respond to the environment and mediate the ‘legacy effect’ of uncontrolled hyperglycaemia early in the disease despite thorough glycaemic control in a phenomenon called metabolic memory. Therefore, an understanding of the integrated system of different epigenetic mechanisms in DM and its vascular complications is urgently needed. This review summarizes aberrant epigenetic regulation under diabetic conditions, including histone modifications, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Understanding the connections between these processes and DM may reveal a novel potential therapeutic target for diabetic vascular complications.
Jiayu Jin, Xinhong Wang, Xiuling Zhi and Dan Meng
Kun Chen, Ji-Dan Zhou, Feng Zhang, Fang Zhang, Rui-Rui Zhang, Meng-Si Zhan, Xiao-Yin Tang, Bing Deng, Ming-Gang Lei and Yuan-Zhu Xiong
G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120), an adipogenic receptor critical for the differentiation and maturation of adipocytes, plays an important role in controlling obesity in both humans and rodents and, thus, is an attractive target of obesity treatment studies. However, the mechanisms that regulate the expression of porcine GPR1 20 remain unclear. In this study, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) techniques were used to analyze and identify the binding of C/EBPβ (transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta) to the GPR120 promoter. C/EBPβ overexpression and RNA interference studies showed that C/EBPβ regulated GPR120 promoter activity and endogenous GPR120 expression. The binding site of C/EBPβ in the GPR120 promoter region from −101 to −87 was identified by promoter deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis. Overexpression of C/EBPβ increased endogenous GPR120 expression in pig kidney cells (PK). Furthermore, when endogenous C/EBPβ was knocked down, GPR120 mRNA and protein levels were decreased. The stimulatory effect of C/EBPβ on GPR120 transcription and its ability to bind the transcription factor-binding site were confirmed by luciferase, ChIP, and EMSA. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression levels of C/EBPβ were induced by high fat diet feeding. Taken together, it can be concluded that C/EBPβ plays a vital role in regulating GPR120 transcription and suggests HFD-feeding induces GPR120 transcription by influencing C/EBPβ expression.