GH/STAT5 signaling is desensitized in the liver in adult transgenic mice overexpressing GH; however, these animals present greater body size. To assess whether the STAT5 pathway is active during the growth period in the liver in these animals, and how signaling modulators participate in this process, growing transgenic mice and normal siblings were evaluated. STAT5 does not respond to an acute GH-stimulus, but displays higher basal phosphorylation in the livers of growing GH-overexpressing mice. GH receptor and the positive modulators glucocorticoid receptor and HNF1 display greater abundance in transgenic animals, supporting the activity of STAT5. The negative modulators cytokine-induced suppressor and PTP1B are increased in GH-overexpressing mice. The suppressors SOCS2 and SOCS3 exhibit higher mRNA levels in transgenic mice but lower protein content, indicating that they are being actively degraded. Therefore, STAT5 signaling is increased in the liver in GH-transgenic mice during the growth period, with a balance between positive and negative effectors resulting in accelerated but controlled growth.
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Carolina S Martinez, Verónica G Piazza, María E Díaz, Ravneet K Boparai, Oge Arum, María C Ramírez, Lorena González, Damasia Becú-Villalobos, Andrzej Bartke, Daniel Turyn, Johanna G Miquet, and Ana I Sotelo
Marina C Muñoz, Verónica G Piazza, Valeria Burghi, Jorge F Giani, Carolina S Martinez, Nadia S Cicconi, Nadia V Muia, Yimin Fang, Sergio Lavandero, Ana I Sotelo, Andrzej Bartke, Patricia A Pennisi, Fernando P Dominici, and Johanna G Miquet
Growth hormone (GH) exerts major actions in cardiac growth and metabolism. Considering the important role of insulin in the heart and the well-established anti-insulin effects of GH, cardiac insulin resistance may play a role in the cardiopathology observed in acromegalic patients. As conditions of prolonged exposure to GH are associated with a concomitant increase of circulating GH, IGF1 and insulin levels, to dissect the direct effects of GH, in this study, we evaluated the activation of insulin signaling in the heart using four different models: (i) transgenic mice overexpressing GH, with chronically elevated GH, IGF1 and insulin circulating levels; (ii) liver IGF1-deficient mice, with chronically elevated GH and insulin but decreased IGF1 circulating levels; (iii) mice treated with GH for a short period of time; (iv) primary culture of rat cardiomyocytes incubated with GH. Despite the differences in the development of cardiomegaly and in the metabolic alterations among the three experimental mouse models analyzed, exposure to GH was consistently associated with a decreased response to acute insulin stimulation in the heart at the receptor level and through the PI3K/AKT pathway. Moreover, a blunted response to insulin stimulation of this signaling pathway was also observed in cultured cardiomyocytes of neonatal rats incubated with GH. Therefore, the key novel finding of this work is that impairment of insulin signaling in the heart is a direct and early event observed as a consequence of exposure to GH, which may play a major role in the development of cardiac pathology.