Increasing peak bone mass is a promising strategy to prevent osteoporosis. A mouse model of global progesterone receptor (PR) ablation showed increased bone mass through a sex-dependent mechanism. Cre-Lox recombination was used to generate a mouse model of osteoprogenitor-specific PR inactivation, which recapitulated the high bone mass phenotype seen in the PR global knockout mouse mode. In this work, we employed RNA sequencing analysis to evaluate sex-independent and sex-dependent differences in gene transcription of osteoprogenitors of wild-type and PR conditional knockout mice. PR deletion caused marked sex hormone-dependent changes in gene transcription in male mice as compared to wild-type controls. These transcriptional differences revealed dysregulation in pathways involving immunomodulation, osteoclasts, bone anabolism, extracellular matrix interaction and matrix interaction. These results identified many potential mechanisms that may explain our observed high bone mass phenotype with sex differences when PR was selectively deleted in the MSCs.
Alexander Kot, Zhendong A Zhong, Hongliang Zhang, Yu-An Evan Lay, Nancy E Lane and Wei Yao
M Rodríguez-Sanz, N García-Giralt, D Prieto-Alhambra, S Servitja, S Balcells, R Pecorelli, A Díez-Pérez, D Grinberg, I Tusquets and X Nogués
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) used as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer cause diverse musculoskeletal side effects that include bone loss and its associated fracture. About half of the 391 patients treated with AIs in the Barcelona–Aromatase induced bone loss in early breast cancer cohort suffered a significant bone loss at lumbar spine (LS) and/or femoral neck (FN) after 2 years on AI-treatment. In contrast, up to one-third (19.6% LS, 38.6% FN) showed no decline or even increased bone density. The present study aimed to determine the genetic basis for this variability. SNPs in candidate genes involved in vitamin D and estrogen hormone-response pathways (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2, HSD17B3, CYP19A1, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, ESR1, DHCR7, GC, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, VDR and CYP24A1) were genotyped for association analysis with AI-related bone loss (AIBL). After multiple testing correction, 3 tag-SNPs (rs4077581, s11632698 and rs900798) located in the CYP11A1 gene were significantly associated (P<0.005) with FN AIBL at 2 years of treatment. Next, CYP11A1 expression in human fresh bone tissue and primary osteoblasts was demonstrated by RT-PCR. Both common isoforms of human cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (encoded by CYP11A1 gene) were detected in osteoblasts by western blot. In conclusion, the genetic association of CYP11A1 gene with AIBL and its expression in bone tissue reveals a potential local function of this enzyme in bone metabolism regulation, offering a new vision of the steroidogenic ability of this tissue and new understanding of AI-induced bone loss.
Richard C Lindsey, Charles H Rundle and Subburaman Mohan
Insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF1) and ephrin ligand (EFN)–receptor (EPH) signaling are both crucial for bone cell function and skeletal development and maintenance. IGF1 signaling is the major mediator of growth hormone-induced bone growth, but a host of different signals and factors regulate IGF1 signaling at the systemic and local levels. Disruption of the Igf1 gene results in reduced peak bone mass in both experimental animal models and humans. Additionally, EFN–EPH signaling is a complex system which, particularly through cell–cell interactions, contributes to the development and differentiation of many bone cell types. Recent evidence has demonstrated several ways in which the IGF1 and EFN–EPH signaling pathways interact with and depend upon each other to regulate bone cell function. While much remains to be elucidated, the interaction between these two signaling pathways opens a vast array of new opportunities for investigation into the mechanisms of and potential therapies for skeletal conditions such as osteoporosis and fracture repair.
Xin-wei Chen, Ye-hong Li, Meng-jun Zhang, Zhou Chen, Dian-shan Ke, Ying Xue and Jian-ming Hou
Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that plays an important role in promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption; however, its effects on senile osteoporosis remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects and mechanism of LF intervention using a senile osteoporosis model (SAMP6 mice) and senescent osteoblasts. Micro-CT and hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated that the intragastric administration (2 g/kg/day) of LF could improve the bone mass and microstructure of SAMP6 mice. Furthermore, LF treatment improved bone metabolism and increased insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) mRNA expression and activated phosphorylation status of AKT. Using osteoblasts passaged for ten generations as an in vitro senescence model, various markers associated with osteoblast formation and differentiation, as well as related indices of oxidative stress were analyzed. Our results revealed that after multiple generations, osteoblasts entered senescence, in conjunction with increased oxidative stress damage, reduced bone metabolism and enhanced expression of aging-related markers. While inhibiting oxidative stress, LF improved osteoblast proliferation by promoting the expression of osteogenesis markers, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Igf1, bone gla protein (Bglap) and osteoprotegerin/receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB ligand (Opg/Rankl) mRNA and delayed senescence by decreasing the level of p16 and p21 expression. RNAI-mediated downregulation of IGF1 attenuated the effect of LF on osteogenesis. Therefore, the findings of the present study indicate that LF may promote osteogenesis via IGF1 signaling, thereby preventing senile osteoporosis.
Murat Bastepe, Serap Turan and Qing He
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a key regulator of skeletal physiology and calcium and phosphate homeostasis. It acts on bone and kidney to stimulate bone turnover, increase the circulating levels of 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D and calcium and inhibit the reabsorption of phosphate from the glomerular filtrate. Dysregulated PTH actions contribute to or are the cause of several endocrine disorders. This calciotropic hormone exerts its actions via binding to the PTH/PTH-related peptide receptor (PTH1R), which couples to multiple heterotrimeric G proteins, including Gs and Gq/11. Genetic mutations affecting the activity or expression of the alpha-subunit of Gs, encoded by the GNAS complex locus, are responsible for several human diseases for which the clinical findings result, at least partly, from aberrant PTH signaling. Here, we review the bone and renal actions of PTH with respect to the different signaling pathways downstream of these G proteins, as well as the disorders caused by GNAS mutations.
The Ca(2+) receptor on the surface of parathyroid cells is the primary molecular entity regulating secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Because of this, it is a particularly appealing target for new drugs intended to increase or decrease circulating levels of PTH. Calcilytic compounds are Ca(2+) receptor antagonists which increase the secretion of PTH. The first reported calcilytic compound was NPS 2143, an orally active molecule which elicits rapid, 3- to 4-fold increases in circulating levels of PTH. These rapid changes in plasma PTH levels are sufficient to increase bone turnover in ovariectomized, osteopenic rats. When administered together with an antiresorptive agent (estradiol), NPS 2143 causes an increase in trabecular bone volume and bone mineral density in osteopenic rats. The magnitude of these changes are far in excess of those caused by estradiol alone and are comparable with those achieved by daily administration of PTH or a peptide analog. These anabolic effects of NPS 2143 on bone are not associated with hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands. Calcilytic compounds can increase endogenous levels of circulating PTH to an extent that stimulates new bone formation. Such compounds could replace the use of exogenous PTH or its peptide fragments in treating osteoporosis.
Tilman D Rachner, Lorenz C Hofbauer, Andy Göbel and Elena Tsourdi
Bone-forming approaches to treat patients with severe osteoporosis are effective, but treatment options are limited, and there is an unmet clinical need for additional drugs. This review discusses two novel and advanced anabolic therapeutic concepts that have successfully completed phase 3 trials. Romosozumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets the Wnt inhibitor sclerostin. Two phase 3 trials (FRAME and ARCH) of romosozumab for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis have been completed. Both trials successfully reached their primary endpoint by reducing vertebral fractures by 75% compared to placebo (FRAME trial) and 48% compared to alendronate (ARCH trial), respectively. Abaloparatide is a PTH-related protein (PTHrP) analog that has displayed bone anabolic activity. In the phase 3 ACTIVE trial, abaloparatide was compared to placebo and teriparatide for 18 months in postmenopausal women who had already experienced an osteoporotic fracture. Abaloparatide successfully reduced the rate of new vertebral fractures by 86% compared to placebo. Furthermore, abaloparatide achieved greater BMD increases at all measured sites compared to both placebo and teriparatide. Based on these results, abaloparatide was FDA approved in April 2017. This review discusses available data of both agents with regard to efficacy and safety as well as their possible future application.
Beatriz Gámez, Edgardo Rodriguez-Carballo and Francesc Ventura
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have become integral nodes of post-transcriptional control of genes that confer cellular identity and regulate differentiation. Cell-specific signaling and transcriptional regulation in skeletal biology are extremely dynamic processes that are highly reliant on dose-dependent responses. As such, skeletal cell-determining genes are ideal targets for quantitative regulation by miRNAs. So far, large amounts of evidence have revealed a characteristic temporal miRNA signature in skeletal cell differentiation and confirmed the essential roles that numerous miRNAs play in bone development and homeostasis. In addition, microarray expression data have provided evidence for their role in several skeletal pathologies. Mouse models in which their expression is altered have provided evidence of causal links between miRNAs and bone abnormalities. Thus, a detailed understanding of the function of miRNAs and their tight relationship with bone diseases would constitute a powerful tool for early diagnosis and future therapeutic approaches.
Petrine Wellendorph, Lars Dan Johansen, Anders A Jensen, Emilio Casanova, Martin Gassmann, Pierre Deprez, Philippe Clément-Lacroix, Bernhard Bettler and Hans Bräuner-Osborne
GPRC6A is a seven-transmembrane receptor mediating signaling by a wide range of l-α-amino acids, a signaling augmented by the divalent cations Ca2 + and Mg2 +. GPRC6A transcripts are detected in numerous mammalian tissues, but the physiological role of the receptor is thus far elusive. Analogously to the closely related calcium-sensing receptor, GPRC6A has been proposed to function as a metabolic sensor of Ca2 + and amino acids in bone and other tissues. In the present study, we have generated the first GPRC6A knockout mice and studied their phenotype with particular focus on bone homeostasis. The generated GPRC6A knockout mice are viable and fertile, develop normally, and exhibit no significant differences in body weight compared with wild-type littermates. Assessment of bone mineral density, histomorphometry, and bone metabolism demonstrated no significant differences between 13-week-old knockout and wild-type mice. In conclusion, our data do not support a role for GPRC6A in normal bone physiology.
J H Duncan Bassett and Graham R Williams
Analysis of mice harbouring deletions or mutations of T3 receptor α (TRα) and β (TRβ) have clarified the complex relationship between central and peripheral thyroid status and emphasised the essential but contrasting roles of T3 in skeletal development and adult bone. These studies indicate that TRα1 is the predominant TR expressed in bone and that T3 exerts anabolic actions during growth but catabolic actions in the adult skeleton. Examination of key skeletal regulatory pathways in TR mutant mice has identified GH, IGF-1 and fibroblast growth factor signalling and the Indian hedgehog/parathyroid hormone-related peptide feedback loop as major targets of T3 action in chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Nevertheless, although increased osteoclastic resorption is a major feature of thyrotoxic bone loss and altered osteoclast activity is central to the skeletal phenotype of TR mutant mice, it remains unclear whether T3 has direct actions in osteoclasts. Detailed future analysis of the molecular mechanisms of T3 action in bone will enhance our understanding of this emerging field and has the potential to identify novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.