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  • Abstract: Diabetes x
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Takumi Nakamura, Kazuki Harada, Taichi Kamiya, Mai Takizawa, Jim Küppers, Kazuo Nakajima, Michael Gütschow, Tetsuya Kitaguchi, Kunihiro Ohta, Tadafumi Kato and Takashi Tsuboi

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), secreted by gastrointestinal enteroendocrine L cells, induces insulin secretion and is important for glucose homeostasis. GLP-1 secretion is induced by various luminal nutrients, including amino acids. Intracellular Ca2+ and cAMP dynamics play an important role in GLP-1 secretion regulation; however, several aspects of the underlying mechanism of amino acid-induced GLP-1 secretion are not well characterized. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the L-glutamine-induced increase in Ca2+ and cAMP intracellular concentrations ([Ca2+]i and [cAMP]i, respectively) in murine enteroendocrine L cell line GLUTag cells. Application of L-glutamine to cells under low extracellular [Na+] conditions, which inhibited the function of the sodium-coupled L-glutamine transporter, did not induce an increase in [Ca2+]i. Application of G protein-coupled receptor family C group 6 member A and calcium-sensing receptor antagonist showed little effect on [Ca2+]i and [cAMP]i; however, taste receptor type 1 member 3 (TAS1R3) antagonist suppressed the increase in [cAMP]i. To elucidate the function of TAS1R3, which forms a heterodimeric umami receptor with taste receptor type 1 member 1 (TAS1R1), we generated TAS1R1 and TAS1R3 mutant GLUTag cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. TAS1R1 mutant GLUTag cells exhibited L-glutamine-induced increase in [cAMP]i, whereas some TAS1R3 mutant GLUTag cells did not exhibit L-glutamine-induced increase in [cAMP]i and GLP-1 secretion. These findings suggest that TAS1R3 is important for L-glutamine-induced increase in [cAMP]i and GLP-1 secretion. Thus, TAS1R3 may be coupled with Gs and related to cAMP regulation.

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G K Shooter, B Magee, M A Soos, G L Francis, K Siddle and J C Wallace

ABSTRACT

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) analogues were produced with the aim of identifying IGF-I residues that contribute to the specificity of binding to the type 1 IGF receptor as opposed to the insulin receptor. Receptor binding properties of a series of A- and B-domain analogues were compared using rat L6 myoblasts, soluble human IGF type 1 receptors and soluble human insulin receptor isoforms HIR-A (−Ex11) and HIR-B (+Ex11). IGF-I analogues, [Leu8] IGF-I and [Phe59] IGF-I, were shown to exhibit respectively, a 28- and 17-fold decrease in affinity for the HIR-A with only a 6- and 5-fold decrease in affinity for the human IGF type 1 receptor. In contrast, the analogue [His4] IGF-I was equipotent to IGF-I in binding to the soluble type 1 IGF receptor while showing 7-fold and 4-fold increases in HIR-A and HIR-B binding respectively. Furthermore, [Leu62] IGF-I was 8-fold less potent than IGF-I in soluble IGF type 1 receptor binding but only showed a 2-fold decrease in HIR-A and HIR-B binding. Our study supports the conclusion that the co-evolution of the IGF-I and insulin receptor/ligand systems has resulted in subtle structural differences in the A- and B-regions of each ligand important for defining receptor binding specificity.

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Giulia Cantini, Martina Trabucco, Alessandra Di Franco, Edoardo Mannucci and Michaela Luconi

Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), which are currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, have recently been proposed as anti-obesity drugs, due to their relevant effects on weight loss. Furthermore, dual agonists for both GLP-1R and glucagon receptor (GCGR) are under investigation for their promising action on adiposity, although underlying mechanisms still need to be clarified. We have recently demonstrated that GLP-1 and liraglutide interfere with the proliferation and differentiation of human adipose precursors, supporting the hypothesis of a peripheral action of GLP-1RA on weight. Here, we investigated glucagon activity in an in vitro model of primary human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). Glucagon significantly inhibited ASC proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as evaluated by cell count and thymidine incorporation. When added during in vitro-induced adipogenesis, glucagon significantly reduced adipocyte differentiation, as demonstrated by the evaluation of intracellular fat content and quantitative expression of early and mature adipocyte markers (PPARγ and FABP4, HSL). Notably, the inhibitory effect of glucagon on cell proliferation and adipogenesis was reversed by specific GLP-1R (exendin-9) and GCGR (des-His1-Glu9-glucagon(1–29)) antagonists. The presence of both receptors was demonstrated by Western blot, immunofluorescence and cytofluorimetric analysis of ASCs. In conclusion, we demonstrated a direct inhibitory action of glucagon on the proliferation and differentiation of human adipose precursors, which seems to involve both GLP-1R and GCGR. These findings suggest that the adipose stem compartment is a novel target of glucagon, possibly contributing to the weight loss obtained in vivo with dual GLP-1R/glucagon agonists.

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A G P Schuller, J W van Neck, R W Beukenholdt, E C Zwarthoff and S L S Drop

ABSTRACT

The IGFs are important mitogens involved in lung growth and development. The regulation of IGF action depends not only on the expression of IGFs and IGF receptors, but also on the modulation of IGF activity by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). In this study, we describe the mRNA expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, type I IGF receptor, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-5 during mouse lung development as studied by in situ hybridization techniques. The IGF, type I IGF receptor and IGFBP-2, -4 and -5 genes were expressed in developing lung as early as embryonal day 12·5. Expression of IGFBPs-1, -3 and -6 was below detection. IGF and IGFBP-2 mRNAs were expressed both in mesenchymal and epithelial cells. Type I IGF receptor transcripts were also observed throughout the developing lung, with the exception of the epithelial cells of the bronchi after embryonal day 15. Furthermore, mRNA expression of IGFBPs-4 and -5 was noted in neighbouring cell types, and after embryonal day 15, co-expression of the type I IGF receptor and IGFBP-4 transcripts was detected. The observed expression patterns imply that the IGFBP-2, -4 and -5 genes are differentially regulated during embryonic development and suggest that each may have a discrete function. A possible role for IGFBPs-2, -4 and -5 is to participate in the regulation of cell-specific IGF responses during mouse lung development.

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BD Green, VA Gault, MH Mooney, N Irwin, CJ Bailey, P Harriott, B Greer, PR Flatt and FP O'Harte

Although the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a potent stimulator of insulin release, its rapid degradation in vivo by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) greatly limits its potential for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Here, we report two novel Ala(8)-substituted analogues of GLP-1, (Abu(8))GLP-1 and (Val(8))GLP-1 which were completely resistant to inactivation by DPP IV or human plasma. (Abu(8))GLP-1 and (Val(8))GLP-1 exhibited moderate affinities (IC(50): 4.76 and 81.1 nM, respectively) for the human GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1 (IC(50): 0.37 nM). (Abu(8))GLP-1 and (Val(8))GLP-1 dose-dependently stimulated cAMP in insulin-secreting BRIN BD11 cells with reduced potency compared with native GLP-1 (1.5- and 3.5-fold, respectively). Consistent with other mechanisms of action, the analogues showed similar, or in the case of (Val(8))GLP-1 slightly impaired insulin releasing activity in BRIN BD11 cells. Using adult obese (ob/ob) mice, (Abu(8))GLP-1 had similar glucose-lowering potency to native GLP-1 whereas the action of (Val(8))GLP-1 was enhanced by 37%. The in vivo insulin-releasing activities were similar. These data indicate that substitution of Ala(8) in GLP-1 with Abu or Val confers resistance to DPP IV inactivation and that (Val(8))GLP-1 is a particularly potent N-terminally modified GLP-1 analogue of possible use in type 2 diabetes.

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Cyrus C Martin, Brian P Flemming, Yingda Wang, James K Oeser and Richard M O'Brien

Islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP/G6PC2) is a major autoantigen in both mouse and human type 1 diabetes. IGRP is selectively expressed in islet β cells and polymorphisms in the IGRP gene have recently been associated with variations in fasting blood glucose levels and cardiovascular-associated mortality in humans. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays have shown that the IGRP promoter binds the islet-enriched transcription factors Pax-6 and BETA2. We show here, again using ChIP assays, that the IGRP promoter also binds the islet-enriched transcription factors MafA and Foxa2. Single binding sites for these factors were identified in the proximal IGRP promoter, mutation of which resulted in decreased IGRP fusion gene expression in βTC-3, Hamster insulinoma tumor (HIT), and Min6 cells. ChiP assays have shown that the islet-enriched transcription factor Pdx-1 also binds the IGRP promoter, but mutational analysis of four Pdx-1 binding sites in the proximal IGRP promoter revealed surprisingly little effect of Pdx-1 binding on IGRP fusion gene expression in βTC-3 cells. In contrast, in both HIT and Min6 cells mutation of these four Pdx-1 binding sites resulted in a ∼50% reduction in fusion gene expression. These data suggest that the same group of islet-enriched transcription factors, namely Pdx-1, Pax-6, MafA, BETA2, and Foxa2, directly or indirectly regulate expression of the two major autoantigens in type 1 diabetes.

Free access

Ji Seon Park, Su Jung Bae, Sik-Won Choi, You Hwa Son, Sung Bum Park, Sang Dal Rhee, Hee Youn Kim, Won Hoon Jung, Seung Kyu Kang, Jin Hee Ahn, Seong Hwan Kim and Ki Young Kim

Selective inhibitors of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) have considerable potential as treatment for osteoporosis as well as metabolic syndrome including type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we investigated the anti-diabetic, anti-adipogenic, and anti-osteoporotic activity of KR-67500, as a novel selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor. Cellular 11β-HSD1 activity was tested based on a homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence method. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) levels were measured in diet-induced obese (DIO)-C57BL/6 mice administered KR-67500 (50 mg/kg per day, p.o.) for 28 days and, additionally, its anti-diabetic effect was evaluated by OGTT and ITT. The in vitro anti-adipogenic effect of KR-67500 was determined by Oil Red O Staining. The in vitro anti-osteoporotic activity of KR-67500 was evaluated using bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2)-induced osteoblast differentiation and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation model systems. KR-67500 improved the in vivo glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in DIO-C57BL/6 mice. KR-67500 suppressed cortisone-induced differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes. KR-67500 enhanced BMP2-induced osteoblastogenesis in C2C12 cells and inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. KR-67500, a new selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, may provide a new therapeutic window in the prevention and/or treatment of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and/or osteoporosis.

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Leping Zhao, Yong Pan, Kesong Peng, Zhe Wang, Jieli Li, Dan Li, Chao Tong, Yi Wang and Guang Liang

11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) controls the production of active glucocorticoid (GC) and has been proposed as a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We have previously reported that a natural product, curcumin, exhibited moderate inhibition and selectivity on 11β-HSD1. By analyzing the models of protein, microsome, cells and GCs-induced mice in vitro and in vivo, this study presented a novel curcumin analog, LG13, as a potent selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor. In vivo, Type 2 diabetic mice were treated with LG13 for 42 days to assess the pharmacological benefits of 11β-HSD1 inhibitor on hepatic glucose metabolism. In vitro studies revealed that LG13 selectively inhibited 11β-HSD1 with IC50 values at nanomolar level and high selectivity over 11β-HSD2. Targeting 11β-HSD1, LG13 could inhibit prednisone-induced adverse changes in mice, but had no effects on dexamethasone-induced ones. Further, the 11β-HSD1 inhibitors also suppressed 11β-HSD1 and GR expression, indicating a possible positive feedback system in the 11β-HSD1/GR cycle. In type 2 diabetic mice induced by high fat diet plus low-dosage STZ injection, oral administration with LG13 for 6 weeks significantly decreased fasting blood glucose, hepatic glucose metabolism, structural disorders, and lipid deposits. LG13 exhibited better pharmacological effects in vivo than insulin sensitizer pioglitazone and potential 11β-HSD1 inhibitor PF-915275. These pharmacological and mechanistic insights on LG13 also provide us novel agents, leading structures, and strategy for the development of 11β-HSD1 inhibitors treating metabolic syndromes.

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Xun Cao, Xiao Zhou, Xiao-Min Liu and Li-Hong Zhou

Liraglutide, a human glucagon-like peptide (GLP1) analog that partially inhibits dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4), can decrease glucose levels and suppress appetite in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). GLP1 and its receptor (GLP1R) also exist in the taste buds of rodents and regulate taste sensitivity. DPP4, a protease, functions in homeostasis of blood glucose, lipids, and body weight. Interactions among GLP1, GLP1R, and DPP4 likely affect taste and food-intake behavior. The aim of the present study was to investigate DPP4 expression in the taste buds of the circumvallate papillae (CV) in T2DM rats, and determine the effects of liraglutide treatment. Rats were divided into diabetic control (T2DM-C), normal control (NC), and liraglutide-treated diabetic (T2DM+LIR) groups. DPP4 localization and gene expression levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), respectively. DPP4 immunoreactive cells were localized in the taste buds of the rat CV. RT-qPCR showed significantly higher expression of Dpp4 mRNA in both the taste buds and hypothalamus of T2DM-C rats compared with NC rats. However, in the T2DM+LIR group, Dpp4 expression differed between the taste buds and hypothalamus, with significantly higher and lower levels compared with the T2DM-C group, respectively. Dpp4 mRNA expression is increased in the taste buds of the CV of T2DM rats. Liraglutide simultaneously upregulated (taste buds) and downregulated (hypothalamus) Dpp4 expression in T2DM rats. Therefore, DPP4 may be closely associated with the anorexigenic signaling and weight loss induced by the treatment of liraglutide in type 2 diabetic patients.

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Q Xiao, W Jeng and MB Wheeler

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a potent insulinotropic hormone currently under study as a therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes. Since an understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to high-affinity receptor (R) binding and activation may facilitate the development of more potent GLP-1R agonists, we have localized specific regions of GLP-1R required for binding. The purified N-terminal fragment (hereafter referred to as NT) of the GLP-1R produced in either insect (Sf9) or mammalian (COS-7) cells was shown to bind GLP-1. The physical interaction of NT with GLP-1 was first demonstrated by cross-linking ((125)I-GLP-1/NT complex band at approximately 28 kDa) and secondly by attachment to Ni(2+)-NTA beads. The GLP-1R NT protein attached to beads bound GLP-1, but with lower affinity (inhibitory concentration (IC(50)): 4.5 x 10(-7) M) than wild-type (WT) GLP-1R (IC(50): 5.2 x 10(-9)M). The low affinity of GLP-1R NT suggested that other receptor domains may contribute to GLP-1 binding. This was supported by studies using chimeric glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)/GLP-1 receptors. GIP(1-151)/GLP-1R, but not GIP(1-222)/GLP-1R, exhibited specific GLP-1 binding and GLP-1-induced cAMP production, suggesting that the region encompassing transmembrane (TM) domain 1 through to TM3 was required for binding. Since it was hypothesized that certain charged or polar amino acids in this region might be involved in binding, these residues (TM2-TM3) were analyzed by substitution mutagenesis. Five mutants (K197A, D198A, K202A, D215A, R227A) displayed remarkably reduced binding affinity. These studies indicate that the NT domain of the GLP-1R is able to bind GLP-1, but charged residues concentrated at the distal TM2/extracellular loop-1 (EC1) interface (K197, D198, K202) and in EC1 (D215 and R227) probably contribute to the binding determinants of the GLP-1R.