Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), the main component of islet amyloid in type 2 diabetes and islet transplants, is now recognized as a contributor to beta cell dysfunction. Increasingly, evidence warrants its investigation in type 1 diabetes owing to both its immunomodulatory and metabolic actions. Autoreactive T cells to IAPP-derived epitopes have been described in humans, suggesting that IAPP is an islet autoantigen in type 1 diabetes. In addition, although aggregates of IAPP have not been implicated in type 1 diabetes, they are potent pro-inflammatory stimuli to innate immune cells, and thus, could influence autoimmunity. IAPP aggregates also occur rapidly in transplanted islets and likely contribute to islet transplant failure in type 1 diabetes through sterile inflammation. In addition, since type 1 diabetes is a disease of both insulin and IAPP deficiency, clinical trials have examined the potential benefits of IAPP replacement in type 1 diabetes with the injectable IAPP analogue, pramlintide. Pramlintide limits postprandial hyperglycemia by delaying gastric emptying and suppressing hyperglucagonemia, underlining the possible role of IAPP in postprandial glucose metabolism. Here, we review IAPP in the context of type 1 diabetes: from its potential involvement in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis, through its role in glucose metabolism and use of IAPP analogues as therapeutics, to its potential role in clinical islet transplant failure and considerations in this regard for future beta cell replacement strategies.
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- Abstract: Thyroid* x
- Abstract: Digestion x
- Abstract: Thyroxine x
- Abstract: Thyroglobulin x
- Abstract: Thyroiditis x
- Abstract: Thyrotoxicosis x
- Abstract: Hypothyroidism x
- Abstract: Hyperthyroidism x
- Abstract: TSHR x
- Abstract: Metabolism x
Heather C Denroche and C Bruce Verchere
See-Tong Pang, Wen-Chi Hsieh, Cheng-Keng Chuang, Chun-Hsiang Chao, Wen-Hui Weng and Horng-Heng Juang
Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), also known as vitamin-D3 upregulated protein 1, interacts with reduced thioredoxin. This protein modulates the cellular redox state and plays a role in stress-induced cellular apoptosis. This study examined TXNIP gene expression in prostate cancer cells. In vitro studies by immunoblot assay have shown that elevated glucose levels (1–15 mM) upregulate TXNIP gene expression two- to fourfold in human prostate carcinoma cells (LNCaP) and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). Transient gene expression assays reveal that the promoter activity of the TXNIP gene is upregulated by glucose, 3-O-methylglucose, and maltose, but not by mannitol. These results suggest that glucose and 3-O-methylglucose induce TXNIP expression through both glucose metabolism-dependent and -independent pathways. Cotransfection of a plasmid expression carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) with a TXNIP reporter vector into LNCaP cells dramatically enhances reporter activity in a low glucose (1 mM) condition. The effects of glucose are apparently mediated in a region located −341 to −324 bp upstream of the translational starting point of the TXNIP gene as indicated by 5′-deletion and site-directed mutagenesis reporter assays. Mutation of the putative carbohydrate response element (ChoRE) from CACGAGGGCAGCACGAG to TTTGAGGGCAGCACGAG abolishes glucose upregulation of TXNIP promoter activity. The present study demonstrates that TXNIP is transcription induced in both LNCaP and HepG2 cells in an increased glucose metabolism-dependent or -independent response, and a putative glucose regulatory system including ChREBP and ChoRE is needed for glucose-induced TXNIP gene in human prostate carcinoma cells.
Rhonda D Kineman, Mercedes del Rio-Moreno and André Sarmento-Cabral
It is clear that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) is important in supporting growth and regulating metabolism. The IGF1 found in the circulation is primarily produced by the liver hepatocytes, but healthy mature hepatocytes do not express appreciable levels of the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R). Therefore, the metabolic actions of IGF1 are thought to be mediated via extra-hepatocyte actions. Given the structural and functional homology between IGF1/IGF1R and insulin receptor (INSR) signaling, and the fact that IGF1, IGF1R and INSR are expressed in most tissues of the body, it is difficult to separate out the tissue-specific contributions of IGF1/IGF1R in maintaining whole body metabolic function. To circumvent this problem, over the last 20 years, investigators have taken advantage of the Cre/loxP system to manipulate IGF1/IGF1R in a tissue-dependent, and more recently, an age-dependent fashion. These studies have revealed that IGF1/IGF1R can alter extra-hepatocyte function to regulate hormonal inputs to the liver and/or alter tissue-specific carbohydrate and lipid metabolism to alter nutrient flux to liver, where these actions are not mutually exclusive, but serve to integrate the function of all tissues to support the metabolic needs of the organism.
A S R Araujo, P Schenkel, A T Enzveiler, T R G Fernandes, W A Partata, S Llesuy, M F M Ribeiro, N Khaper, P K Singal and A Belló-Klein
This study was conducted to test whether oxidative stress activates the intracellular protein kinase B (AKT1) signaling pathway, which culminates with cardiac hypertrophy in experimental hyperthyroidism. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, vitamin E, thyroxine (T4), and T4+vitamin E. Hyperthyroidism was induced by T4 administration (12 mg/l in drinking water for 28 days). Vitamin E treatment was given during the same period via s.c. injections (20 mg/kg per day). Morphometric and hemodynamic parameters were evaluated at the end of the 4-week treatment period. Protein oxidation, redox state (reduced glutathione, GSH/glutathione dissulfide, GSSG), vitamin C, total radical-trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitric oxide metabolites (NOX) were measured in heart homogenates. The p-AKT1/AKT1 ratio, p-glycogen-synthase kinase (GSK)3B/GSK3B ratio, FOS, and JUN myocardial protein expression were also quantified by western blot after 4 weeks. Increases in biochemical parameters, such as protein oxidation (41%), H2O2 (62%), and NOX (218%), and increase in the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were observed in the T4 group. T4 treatment also caused a decrease in GSH/GSSG ratio (83%), vitamin C (34%), and TRAP (55%). These alterations were attenuated by vitamin E administration to the hyperthyroid rats. Expression of p-AKT1/AKT1, p-GSK3B/GSK3B, FOS, and JUN were elevated in the T4 group (by 69, 37, 130, and 33% respectively), whereas vitamin E administration promoted a significant reduction in their expression. These results indicate that oxidative stress plays an important role in cardiac hypertrophy, and suggest redox activation of AKT1 and JUN/FOS signaling pathways with H2O2 acting as a possible intracellular mediator in this adaptive response to experimental hyperthyroidism.
Siyi Zhu, Hongchen He, Chengfei Gao, Guojing Luo, Ying Xie, Haiming Wang, Li Tian, Xiang Chen, Xijie Yu and Chengqi He
We examined the effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL6) gene knockout in preserving the bone loss induced by ovariectomy (OVX) and the mechanisms involved in bone metabolism. Twenty female wild-type (WT), TNFα-knockout (TNFα−/−) or IL6-knockout (IL6−/−) mice aged 12 weeks were sham-operated (SHAM) or subjected to OVX and killed after 4 weeks. Bone mass and skeletal microarchitecture were determined using micro-CT. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from all three groups (WT, TNFα−/− and IL6−/−) were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts or osteoclasts and treated with 17-β-estradiol. Bone metabolism was assessed by histological analysis, serum analyses and qRT-PCR. OVX successfully induced a high turnover in all mice, but a repair effect was observed in TNFα−/− and IL6−/− mice. The ratio of femoral trabecular bone volume to tissue volume, trabecular number and trabecular thickness were significantly decreased in WT mice subjected to OVX, but increased in TNFα−/− mice (1.62, 1.34, 0.27-fold respectively; P < 0.01) and IL6−/− mice (1.34, 0.80, 0.22-fold respectively; P < 0.01). Furthermore, we observed a 29.6% increase in the trabecular number in TNFα−/− mice when compared to the IL6−/− mice. Both, TNFα−/− and IL6−/− BMSCs exhibited decreased numbers of TRAP-positive cells and an increase in ALP-positive cells, with or without E2 treatment (P < 0.05). While the knockout of TNFα or IL6 significantly upregulated mRNA expressions of osteoblast-related genes (Runx2 and Col1a1) and downregulated osteoclast-related mRNA for TRAP, MMP9 and CTSK in vivo and in vitro, TNFα knockout appeared to have roles beyond IL6 knockout in upregulating Col1a1 mRNA expression and downregulating mRNA expressions of WNT-related genes (DKK1 and Sost) and TNF-related activation-induced genes (TRAF6). TNFα seemed to be more potentially invasive in inhibiting bone formation and enhancing TRAF6-mediated osteoclastogenesis than IL6, implying that the regulatory mechanisms of TNFα and IL6 in bone metabolism may be different.
X Shen, QL Li, GA Brent and TC Friedman
Most pro-neuropeptides are processed by the prohormone convertases, PC1 and PC2. We previously reported that changes in thyroid status altered anterior pituitary PC1 mRNA and this regulation was due to triiodothyronine (T(3))-dependent interaction of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) with negative thyroid hormone response elements (nTREs) contained in a large region of the human PC1 promoter. In this study, we demonstrated that hypothyroidism stimulated, while hyperthyroidism suppressed, PC1 mRNA levels in rat hypothalamus and cerebral cortex, but not in hippocampus. In situ hybridization was used to confirm real-time PCR changes and localize the regulation within the hypothalamus and cortex. Using a human PC1 (hPC1) promoter construct (with and without deletions in two regions that each contain a negative TRE) transiently transfected into GH3 cells, we found that T(3) negatively regulated hPC1 promoter activity, and this regulation required both of these two regions. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) using purified thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 (TRalpha1) and retinoid X receptor beta (RXRbeta) proteins demonstrated that RXR and TRalpha both bound the PC1 promoter. Addition of TRalpha1/RXRbeta to the wild-type PC1 probe demonstrated binding as both homodimers and a heterodimer. EMSAs with oligonucleotides containing deletion mutations of the putative nTREs demonstrated that the proximal nTRE binds more strongly to TR and RXR than the distal nTRE, but that both regions exhibit specific binding. We conclude that there are multiple novel TRE-like sequences in the hPC1 promoter and that these regions act in a unique manner to facilitate the negative effect of thyroid hormone on PC1.
I Fernandes and JH White
Members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-regulated transcription factors are targets of a wide range of lipophilic signaling molecules as well as several drugs and xenobiotics that modulate many aspects of physiology and metabolism. Agonist binding to receptors is associated with recruitment of coactivators, which are essential for activation of target gene transcription. However, several biochemical and molecular genetic studies have shown that a full understanding of the function of agonist-bound receptors must also accommodate the recruitment of corepressors. These factors may attenuate agonist-induced transactivation, act more transiently as part of a cycle of cofactors recruited to target promoters by ligand-bound receptors, or function in hormone-dependent repression of target gene expression.
Raffaella Maria Gadaleta and Luca Magnani
The nuclear receptor (NR) family comprises 48 transcription factors (TFs) with essential and diverse roles in development, metabolism and disease. Differently from other TFs, NRs engage with well-defined DNA-regulatory elements, mostly after ligand-induced structural changes. However, NR binding is not stochastic, and only a fraction of the cognate regulatory elements within the genome actively engage with NRs. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the understanding of the interactions between NRs and DNA. We discuss how chromatin accessibility and epigenetic modifications contribute to the recruitment and transactivation of NRs. Lastly, we present novel evidence of the interplay between non-coding RNA and NRs in the mediation of the assembly of the transcriptional machinery.
Yang Mi, Na Guo, Tongqiang He, Jing Ji, Zhibin Li and Pu Huang
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition commonly encountered during mid to late pregnancy with pathologic manifestations including hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and fetal mal-development. The deficit and dysfunction of insulin secreting β-cells are signature symptoms for GDM. Pancreatic progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were shown to be able to effectively treat diabetes in mice. In this study, we first identified that microRNA-410 (miR-410) directly targets lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a gene selectively repressed in normal insulin secreting β-cells. hESCs that can be induced to express miR-410 hence keeping LDHA levels in check were then differentiated in vitro into pancreatic endoderm, followed by transplantation into db/ + mouse model of GDM. The transplant greatly improved glucose metabolism and reproductive outcome of the pregnant females suffering from GDM. Our findings describe for the first time the method of combining miRNA with hESCs, providing proof of concept by employing genetically modified stem cell therapy for treating GDM.
Lacey M Litchfield and Carolyn M Klinge
Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) is an orphan nuclear receptor that acts as a transcriptional activator or repressor in a cell type-dependent manner. Best characterized for its role in the regulation of angiogenesis during mouse development, COUP-TFII also plays important roles in glucose metabolism and cancer. Expression of COUP-TFII is altered in various endocrine conditions. Cell type-specific functions and the regulation of COUP-TFII expression result in its varying physiological and pathological actions in diverse systems. Evidence will be reviewed for oncogenic and tumor-suppressive functions of COUP-TFII, with roles in angiogenesis, metastasis, steroidogenesis, and endocrine sensitivity of breast cancer described. The applicability of current data to our understanding of the role of COUP-TFII in cancer will be discussed.