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Changxue Lu and Sheue-Yann Cheng

H-mutated TRα1 manifest visceral obesity, hyperleptinemia, reduced catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in WAT, and hepatic steatosis ( Liu et al . 2007 ). In the absence of T 3 , wild-type TRα1 and P398H mutant significantly reduce PPARα

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J H Duncan Bassett and Graham R Williams

hormone receptors . Bone 36 607 – 616 . Liu YY Schultz JJ Brent GA 2003 A thyroid hormone receptor alpha gene mutation (P398H) is associated with visceral adiposity and impaired catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in mice . Journal of

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Jin-Seung Choung, Young-Sun Lee, and Hee-Sook Jun

lipolysis and free fatty acid utilization, contributing to the activation of UCP-1. β 3 -adrenergic receptors are thought to play a role in thermogenesis in brown fat and skeletal muscle, induce adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis and stimulate UCP1

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Qi Zhang, Qin Zhu, Ruyuan Deng, Feiye Zhou, Linlin Zhang, Shushu Wang, Kecheng Zhu, Xiao Wang, Libin Zhou, and Qing Su

reticulum-tethered transcription factor cAMP responsive element-binding protein, hepatocyte specific, regulates hepatic lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and lipolysis upon metabolic stress in mice . Hepatology 55 1070 – 1082 . ( https://doi.org/10

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Kazuyoshi Ukena, Tomohiro Osugi, Jérôme Leprince, Hubert Vaudry, and Kazuyoshi Tsutsui

-induced lipolysis ( Malumba et al . 2010 ). As 3T3-L1 cells express the QRFPR-encoding gene, it appears that 26RFa/QRFP may act in an autocrine/paracrine manner to regulate adipogenesis ( Malumba et al . 2010 ). According to Alonzeau et al . (2013) , 26RFa

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Yanxia Tang and GuoDong Li

increased plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) resulting from lack of appropriate suppression of adipocyte lipolysis due to insulin resistance and deficiency ( Reaven 1988 , Imrie et al . 2010 ). Furthermore, circulating levels of FFAs are usually

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Bo Zhou, Huixia Li, Jiali Liu, Lin Xu, Qinyue Guo, Hongzhi Sun, and Shufang Wu

476 – 491 . ( doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.08.047 ). Stralfors P Honnor RC 1989 Insulin-induced dephosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase: correlation with lipolysis and cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity . European Journal of Biochemistry

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Edwin J W Geven, Folkert Verkaar, Gert Flik, and Peter H M Klaren

, Schreck 2000 ). Cortisol stimulates gluconeogenesis and lipolysis ( Sheridan 1988 , van der Boon et al. 1991 ), which result in increased plasma glucose and free fatty acid levels. These catabolic actions of cortisol reflect its glucocorticoid potency

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L J Moran, P A Mundra, H J Teede, and P J Meikle

metabolic effects including suppression of lipogenesis and enhancement of lipolysis ( Shirouchi et al . 2007 ). Elevated lysophosphatidylcholine may indicate an increase in phospholipase activity which is highly expressed in the atherogenic plaque and

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Afreen Idris Shariff, Sohail Syed, Rebecca A Shelby, Jeremy Force, Jeffrey Melson Clarke, David D’Alessio, and Leonor Corsino

adipose tissue, CST increases the breakdown of lipids by inducing lipolysis and raising local accumulation of non-sterified fatty acids, a mechanism that has been associated with greater increasing insulin resistance ( Perez et al. 2014 ). Apart from