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Xiao-Qiu Wang, Jing Yu, Xue-Zhen Luo, Ying-Li Shi, Yun Wang, Ling Wang, and Da-Jin Li

endometriosis ( Rier & Foster 2002 ). TCDD appears to be antagonistic and analogous to estrogen, so effects of TCDD on the action of estrogen and inflammation may be mainly mechanic in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Our previous work has shown that the

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Sumaira Z Hasnain, Johannes B Prins, and Michael A McGuckin

translation ( Walter & Ron 2011 ) and initiate inflammation and apoptosis ( Hasnain et al . 2012 , Eizirik et al . 2013 ). Oxidative and ER stress are closely entwined phenomena because oxidative stress can induce protein misfolding by disturbing the ER

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Jinghua Peng and Ling He

. 2014 ). Figure 2 Phosphorylation of IRS at serine and threonine residues by Ser/Thr kianses impairs insulin signaling. Activation of Ser/Thr kianses by hyperglycemia, lipids, inflammation and ER stress leads to the inhibitory serine and threonine

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Ni Yan, Shuai Meng, Rong-Hua Song, Qiu Qin, Xuan Wang, Qiuming Yao, Yanfei Jiang, Wenjuan Jiang, Liangfeng Shi, Jian Xu, and Jinan Zhang

elements, are involved in the initiation and/or development of AITDs. However, the pathophysiologic changes seen in AITDs are mediated by inflammatory cytokines ( Ganesh et al . 2011 ). Cytokines are crucial regulators to promote or suppress inflammation

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Alvaro Moreira, Samuel Kahlenberg, and Peter Hornsby

purposes of this review, studies examining the regenerative properties of MSCs will be generalized into the following major themes: vascular development, anti-inflammation and anti-fibrosis ( Fig 3 ). Figure 3 Therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem

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Yasmine Hachemi, Anna E Rapp, Ann-Kristin Picke, Gilbert Weidinger, Anita Ignatius, and Jan Tuckermann

acute and chronic inflammation as well as pain. In addition, they are components of certain cancer therapies. High GC doses resulting from corticosteroid or from the stress response, induce a number of side effects, including strong effects on the

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Pilar Argente-Arizón, Santiago Guerra-Cantera, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Jesús Argente, and Julie A Chowen

local network. Studies indicating that the activation of hypothalamic glial cells in response to high-fat diet (HFD) intake is involved in central inflammation and insulin resistance have drawn increasing attention to the role that these cells play in

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Jiazhong Sun, Yancheng Xu, Haohua Deng, Suxin Sun, Zhe Dai, and Yanlei Sun

inflammation and the inflammatory response. The adipokines appear to be involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including hemostasis, lipid metabolism, blood pressure regulation, insulin sensitivity, and angiogenesis ( Fruhbeck et al . 2001

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Carolyn M Mitchell, Shane D Sykes, Xin Pan, Kirsty G Pringle, Eugenie R Lumbers, Jonathan J Hirst, and Tamas Zakar

Introduction Parturition is associated with inflammation in the fetal membranes and the decidua. Array-based studies assessing the expression of a large number of genes simultaneously as well as studies determining the expression level of

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A Stevens, C De Leonibus, D Hanson, A W Dowsey, A Whatmore, S Meyer, R P Donn, P Chatelain, I Banerjee, K E Cosgrove, P E Clayton, and M J Dunne

used to investigate the metabolic regulation of adipocytes in obesity in order to further understand the cascade of events progressing from adipocyte expansion to immune cell recruitment and initiation of inflammation ( Kamei et al . 2006 ). Lipidomics