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Eva Tudurí, Monica Imbernon, Rene Javier Hernández-Bautista, Marta Tojo, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez, and Rubén Nogueiras

pyrazole (Rimonabant) approved as anti-obesity therapy, although it was later discontinued because of its psychiatric side effects. GPR55: a putative cannabinoid receptor Although there is a good understanding of the consequences of CB1 and CB2

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I J Bujalska, M Quinkler, J W Tomlinson, C T Montague, D M Smith, and P M Stewart

Introduction The magnitude and severity of the obesity epidemic ( Kopelman 2000 ) have provided the impetus to further understand its genetic basis as well as focussing attention on the neuroendocrine regulation of appetite control

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Abby F Fleisch, Robert O Wright, and Andrea A Baccarelli

first proposed by Waddington (1942) . One of the more intriguing facets of epigenetics is the responsiveness of many epigenetic marks to environmental factors. The hereditary component of complex, multifactorial processes such as obesity ( Lindgren et

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Qin He, Dan Mei, Sha Sha, Shanshan Fan, Lin Wang, and Ming Dong

also a risk factor for metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemia ( Tiniakos et al. 2010 ). Thus, NAFLD is often considered as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. To date, no effective medical interventions

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Anthony H Tsang, Johanna L Barclay, and Henrik Oster

results in metabolic perturbations, and ultimately obesity (reviewed in Froy (2010) ). Conversely, high fat diet (HFD) can dampen clock gene rhythmicity in the liver and fat, and well as affecting behavioral rhythms ( Kohsaka et al . 2007 ). HFD results

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Erica J P Anderson, Isin Çakir, Sheridan J Carrington, Roger D Cone, Masoud Ghamari-Langroudi, Taneisha Gillyard, Luis E Gimenez, and Michael J Litt

and energy expenditure, and this role for the receptor has been shown to be evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates from fish to human. MC4R knockout mice as well as human mutants present early onset severe obesity associated with increased fat and

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Huixia Li, Zhuanmin Zhang, Dongxu Feng, Lin Xu, Fang Li, Jiali Liu, Xinxin Jin, Zhuang Qian, Xiaomin Kang, and Hongzhi Sun

in the inflammatory response, considerable effort has gone into ascertaining that PGRN also has proinflammatory effects in obesity and insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have identified PGRN as an important determinant of glucose

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Thomas Svava Nielsen, Niels Jessen, Jens Otto L Jørgensen, Niels Møller, and Sten Lund

essentially unlimited capacity ( Frayn 2002 ). However, the metabolic consequences of an excessive expansion of AT are considerable. In humans, obesity is closely associated with numerous risk factors that constitute the so-called metabolic syndrome. This

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Pilar Argente-Arizón, Santiago Guerra-Cantera, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura, Jesús Argente, and Julie A Chowen

the identification of new therapeutic targets for obesity treatment. It is important to remember that the responses of males and females to obesity and its secondary complications are different ( Palmer & Clegg 2015 ). This is at least partially due

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Laura Marroquí, Alejandro Gonzalez, Patricia Ñeco, Ernesto Caballero-Garrido, Elaine Vieira, Cristina Ripoll, Angel Nadal, and Ivan Quesada

situations such as pregnancy or obesity respectively ( Sachdeva & Stoffers 2009 ). The regulation of β-cell function in the short and long term allows for an adequate level of plasma insulin levels, which restores plasma glucose concentrations to