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Anke Gutgesell, Robert Ringseis, Eileen Schmidt, Corinna Brandsch, Gabriele I Stangl, and Klaus Eder

the mammary gland due to the enhanced expression of Lpl ( Farid et al . 1978 , Grigor et al . 1982 ). Simultaneously, the uptake of NEFA derived mainly from lipolysis in white adipose tissue by fatty acid transporters into the mammary gland as

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L Quignodon, C Legrand, N Allioli, A Guadaño-Ferraz, J Bernal, J Samarut, and F Flamant

receptor alpha gene mutation (P398H) is associated with visceral adiposity and impaired catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in mice. Journal of Biological Chemistry 278 38913 –38920. Livak JL & Schmittgen TD 2001 Analysis

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R Serrano, M Villar, C Martínez, J M Carrascosa, N Gallardo, and A Andrés

lipolysis. Journal of Biological Chemistry 239 375 –385. Ruiz P , Pulido JA, Martinez C, Carrascosa JM, Satrustegui J & Andres A 1992 Effect of aging on the kinetic characteristics of the insulin receptor

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Ke-feng Yang, Wei Cai, Jia-li Xu, and Wen Shi

pathway and diabetes mellitus . Diabetologia 51 1771 – 1780 . doi:10.1007/s00125-008-1084-y . Kim CH Kim MS Youn JY Park HS Song HS Song KH Park JY Lee KU 2003 Lipolysis in skeletal muscle is decreased in high-fat-fed rats

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Elin Swedenborg, Joëlle Rüegg, Sari Mäkelä, and Ingemar Pongratz

increased lipolysis and decreased glucose oxidation, both symptoms characteristic of diabetes and obesity ( Hoppe & Carey 2007 ). Yet another example is bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer with strong estrogenic properties, used in its polymeric form as lining of

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Penny Ahlstrom, Esther Rai, Suharto Chakma, Hee Ho Cho, Palanivel Rengasamy, and Gary Sweeney

Yan W Xia Y Chen X Wang W Zhang J Gao C Peng C Yan F 2016 Branched chain amino acids cause liver injury in obese/diabetic mice by promoting adipocyte lipolysis and inhibiting hepatic autophagy . EBioMedicine 13 157 – 167 . ( doi

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Gabriela Silva Monteiro de Paula, Marianna Wilieman, Karina Ribeiro Silva, Leandra Santos Baptista, Sihem Boudina, Luana Lopes de Souza, Thais Bento-Bernardes, Karina Dutra Asensi, Regina Coeli dos Santos Goldenberg, and Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura

. Regardless of the mechanism, the modulation of NB receptor activity may represent a promising target for limiting the gain weight associated with cell hyperplasia that occurs in the genesis of obesity, but not to induce loss of adiposity through lipolysis

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Viral Chikani and Ken K Y Ho

availability of metabolic fuels and its capacity to synthesise ATP. The energy synthesis from substrate utilisation in exercising muscle is regulated by nutritional, genetic and hormonal factors as well as physical training. GH stimulates lipolysis during

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Hyon-Seung Yi, Joon Young Chang, and Minho Shong

-sucrose diet-fed mice by sirtuin-mediated UPR mt , triggering an adaptive mitohormesis in the liver of mice ( Gariani et al . 2016 ). The UPR mt induced by skeletal muscle-specific OxPhos deficiency is also associated with enhanced lipolysis and fatty acid

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Yanxia Tang and GuoDong Li

increased plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) resulting from lack of appropriate suppression of adipocyte lipolysis due to insulin resistance and deficiency ( Reaven 1988 , Imrie et al . 2010 ). Furthermore, circulating levels of FFAs are usually