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Rodolfo Gomez, Francisca Lago, Juan Gomez-Reino, Carlos Dieguez, and Oreste Gualillo

their action through endocrine, paracrine, autocrine or juxtacrine cross-talk in a wide variety of physiological or physiopathological processes, including immunity and inflammation ( Otero et al . 2005 a ). It is noteworthy that several adipokines are

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Ana Luísa Neves, João Coelho, Luciana Couto, Adelino Leite-Moreira, and Roberto Roncon-Albuquerque Jr

tissue weight gain to a similar extent as in high-fat-fed mice Liver insulin resistance, markers of inflammation, and liver triglyceride content were increased in LPS-infused mice Cd14 mutant mice resisted most of the LPS and high-fat diet

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Ayse Basak Engin, Atilla Engin, and Ipek Isik Gonul

, obesity-related breast inflammation is critical for the induction of aromatase activity. Aromatase also mediates the crosstalk of obesity-associated inflammation and hormone alterations in breast cancer ( Subbaramaiah et al. 2012 ). However, aromatase

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Ciro Menale, Maria Teresa Piccolo, Grazia Cirillo, Raffaele A Calogero, Alfonso Papparella, Luigi Mita, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Nadia Diano, Stefania Crispi, and Damiano Gustavo Mita

mainly related to inflammation, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, cell signaling, and metabolic diseases with P values that ranged from 2.84×10 − 6 to 1.66×10 − 3 ( Fig. 1 A). This was expected, as it is well known that estrogens are associated with

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Ronald M Evans

to and augments the severity of the disease. Evan Simpson reviews how chronic inflammation associated with high fat diet disrupts the normally tight regulation of the aromatase gene. Aromatase is involved in the biosynthesis of estrogen, the ligand

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Silvia Giatti, Mariaserena Boraso, Roberto Cosimo Melcangi, and Barbara Viviani

processes that occur in the CNS. Different events (inflammation, infection, aging, neurodegenerative diseases) could be the causative factor for the activation of microglia and astrocytes, the immune cells of CNS. It leads to a series of concomitant

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Cory J Xian

inhibition of these cytokines. They point out that, while the currently available cytokine-targeting biologics could be used to reduce growth retardation in children with chronic inflammation, further work is needed to develop more effective specific cytokine

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Michael A Gentile, Pascale V Nantermet, Robert L Vogel, Robert Phillips, Daniel Holder, Paul Hodor, Chun Cheng, Hongyue Dai, Leonard P Freedman, and William J Ray

Muscle structure 2.16 <0.001 Ctgf Connective tissue growth factor NM_022266 Receptor ligand/ECM remodeling/inflammation 2.14 0.016 Ggps1 Geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase 1 NM_001007626 Isoprenyl synthase/protein lipidation 2.08 <0.001 Ccl7 Chemokine (C

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Elisa Manieri and Guadalupe Sabio

-grade inflammation state ( Neels & Olefsky 2006 ), with increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL6) and of circulating free fatty acids (FFA), causing the activation of stress-induced mechanisms in

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Kira Meyerovich, Fernanda Ortis, and Alessandra K Cardozo

( Chatterjee et al . 2017 ), T1D is mainly a result of an autoimmune attack leading to β-cell destruction ( Christoffersson et al . 2016 ). Islet inflammation has been considered as a key feature of T1D, and it is now recognized that inflammation also