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Gábor Bánhegyi, Miklós Csala, and Angelo Benedetti

and paracrine effects seem to be important elements of the pathomechanism of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes ( Tomlinson et al . 2004 , Morton & Seckl 2008 ). H6PD emerged as an indispensable component of the intracellular

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Tingting Ren, Jinhan He, Hongfeng Jiang, Luxia Zu, Shenshen Pu, Xiaohui Guo, and Guoheng Xu

Introduction Obesity and type 2 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are associated with increased levels of circulating free fatty acids (FFA), which are thought to induce insulin resistance ( Groop et al. 1989 ). The

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Hui Huang and Ya-Xiong Tao

Introduction The global epidemic of obesity, with a prevalence of 9.8% of adults worldwide ( Kelly et al . 2008 ) and 33.8% of adults in the USA ( Flegal et al . 2010 ), has become one of the most significant burdens to public health. Obesity is a

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Kun Chen, Ji-Dan Zhou, Feng Zhang, Fang Zhang, Rui-Rui Zhang, Meng-Si Zhan, Xiao-Yin Tang, Bing Deng, Ming-Gang Lei, and Yuan-Zhu Xiong

and adipocytokines in visceral obesity contributes greatly to various aspects of metabolic syndromes ( Rocha & Libby 2009 ). Hence, the molecular mechanisms of adipogenesis and adipocyte development are significant for energy metabolism. Previous

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Jinghua Peng and Ling He

a brake on protein synthesis, and/or by increasing the production of protein chaperones needed for protein folding, or by degrading unfolded proteins. Excess nutrient intake causes ER stress and insulin resistance in obese animal models and obese

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Hyeon Young Park, Hye Suk Kang, and Seung-Soon Im

immune cells ( Oren et al . 1963 , Newsholme et al . 1986 ). One research group demonstrated that the main inflammatory signaling pathway, which involves nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and the inhibitor of κB kinase β (IKKβ), is stimulated in obesity and

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Jacqueline M Wallace, John S Milne, Raymond P Aitken, and Clare L Adam

Introduction Inadequate prenatal growth velocity leading to intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), premature delivery and low birth weight is a risk factor for adverse metabolic health and obesity, particularly when the newborn is exposed to a

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J Jason Collier, Tim E Sparer, Michael D Karlstad, and Susan J Burke

), while obesity is one of the most important risk factors for the development of T2D ( Bray 1992 ). However, there are a number of commonalities between T1D and T2D that are worth considering. First, insulin resistance is a risk factor for both T1D

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Louise K Metcalfe, Greg C Smith, and Nigel Turner

Insulin resistance and lipid metabolism Obesity and diabetes are metabolic conditions of increasingly widespread significance to modern populations. The global scale and gravity of their impacts on general health, life expectancy and quality

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Rhonda D Kineman, Manuel D Gahete, and Raul M Luque

down-regulated in obesity ( Tschop et al. 2001 , Sugino et al. 2002 , Moesgaard et al. 2004 , Luque & Kineman 2006 , Martin et al. 2006 ) and up-regulated in response to food deprivation ( Toshinai et al. 2001 , Luque et al. 2006 b