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N T Lam, S D Covey, J T Lewis, S Oosman, T Webber, E C Hsu, A T Cheung, and T J Kieffer

the dual role of PTP1B in attenuating leptin and insulin signaling, there is great interest in pursuing PTP1B inhibition to treat both obesity and diabetes ( Johnson et al. 2002 , Zhang & Lee 2003 ). However, the relative importance of PTP1B

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Matthias Laudes

Introduction During the last century, a dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and its associated metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes has been noticed in most developed nations around the globe. Therefore, biomedical research into the

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D F Garcia-Diaz, J Campion, F I Milagro, N Boque, M J Moreno-Aliaga, and J A Martinez

Introduction Worldwide, obesity is emerging as one of the major health threats ( Powers et al . 2007 ). Indeed, it is well known that an excessive body fat accumulation, which defines this disease, could lead to several associated clinical

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Xiao-Hua Wang, Hao-Meng Wang, Bao-Lei Zhao, Peng Yu, and Zhen-Chuan Fan

Introduction Many human diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), hypogonadism, Hirschsprung disease, and certain kinds of severe early-onset morbid obesity can be caused by mutations in G protein-coupled receptors

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Rodolfo Gomez, Francisca Lago, Juan Gomez-Reino, Carlos Dieguez, and Oreste Gualillo

16 kDa protein is the product of the gene obese ( ob ), which is mutated in a murine form of hereditary obesity. Since then, WAT has been found to generate more than 50 cytokines and other molecules ( Rasouli & Kern 2008 ). These ‘adipokines’ exert

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Edra London, Maria Nesterova, and Constantine A Stratakis

Introduction High worldwide obesity rates have resulted from the combined effects of environmental and lifestyle factors including food composition and availability, portion sizes, work and commuting habits and lagging physical activity levels

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Long The Nguyen, Sonia Saad, Yi Tan, Carol Pollock, and Hui Chen

Introduction Obesity is a metabolic disorder characterised by a long-lasting positive energy balance, conservatively affecting 600 million people worldwide ( WHO 2015 ). It is a critical factor leading to the development of various

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Yingdi Yuan, Xinguo Cao, Jiaojiao Hu, Jingyun Li, Dan Shen, Lianghui You, Xianwei Cui, Xing Wang, Yahui Zhou, Yao Gao, Lijun Zhu, Pengfei Xu, Chenbo Ji, Xirong Guo, and Juan Wen

Introduction Obesity refers to excessive accumulation of adipose tissue caused by genetic and environmental factors, which can significantly increase the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia and

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N Martínez-Micaelo, N González-Abuín, A Ardévol, M Pinent, E Petretto, J Behmoaras, and M Blay

Introduction A prolonged excess of nutrient consumption results in the continuous saturation of the white adipose tissue's ability to store energy as fat, triggering a cytokine-driven response that underlie an obesity-induced inflammation. Thus

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Ciro Menale, Maria Teresa Piccolo, Grazia Cirillo, Raffaele A Calogero, Alfonso Papparella, Luigi Mita, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Nadia Diano, Stefania Crispi, and Damiano Gustavo Mita

also been associated with obesity and metabolic disorders ( Rochester 2013 , Lakind et al . 2014 ), specifically in children ( Trasande et al . 2012 , Lee et al . 2013 , Nicolucci et al . 2013 ). BPA is known to have estrogen-like properties, but