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Christopher E Wall, Ruth T Yu, Anne R Atkins, Michael Downes, and Ronald M Evans

fatty acids that can originate from dietary sources, lipolysis of lipid storage in adipose tissues, or de novo lipogenesis ( Dreyer et al . 1993 ). While PPARδ is responsible for regulating its target genes most critically in skeletal muscle, PPARα

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Michelle Colomiere, Michael Permezel, and Martha Lappas

( Sivan et al . 1998 ). In the third trimester, postprandial FFA levels increase and insulin sensitivity worsens by 40–60% compared with pre-pregnancy ( Catalano et al . 1993 , 1999 ). Insulin's ability to suppress whole-body lipolysis is reduced during

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Paola Moreno, Bernardo Nuche-Berenguer, Irene Gutiérrez-Rojas, Alicia Acitores, Verónica Sancho, Isabel Valverde, Nieves González, and María L Villanueva-Peñacarrillo

rat liver, skeletal muscle and fat, in an insulin-independent manner ( Alcántara et al . 1997 , Morales et al . 1997 , Sancho et al . 2005 ), as well as lipogenesis and lipolysis in the latter cells ( Sancho et al . 2005 ). In rat muscles, Ex-4

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Ayse Basak Engin, Atilla Engin, and Ipek Isik Gonul

mRNA expression in macrophages through the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Macrophage-induced adipocyte lipolysis aggravates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation by this way ( Ichioka et al. 2011 ). TLR-dependent polarization mediators of M1 macrophages

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Andrew Whittle

of its potential substrates ( Misono 2011 ). Lipolysis in adipose tissue following adrenergic stimulation was thought to be solely dependant on cAMP levels, but it has been demonstrated that in white adipocytes, increased cGMP levels following NP

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C Folgueira, S Barja-Fernandez, P Gonzalez-Saenz, V Pena-Leon, C Castelao, M Ruiz-Piñon, F F Casanueva, R Nogueiras, and L M Seoane

exert a direct action on human visceral adipocytes stimulating lipolysis through the activation and phosphorylation of HSL and the upregulation of several genes involved in lipid mobilization ( Rodriguez et al . 2016 ). Several studies have shown that

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Qin He, Dan Mei, Sha Sha, Shanshan Fan, Lin Wang, and Ming Dong

concomitant increase in autophagy flux. It suggested that autophagy may play an absolutely necessary role in lipolysis, which could provide a new way to eliminate lipid accumulation in addition to lipase-mediated lipolysis. Autophagy is regulated by a

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Li Hu, Fengli He, Meifeng Huang, Meihua Peng, Zhiguang Zhou, Feng Liu, and Yan-Shan Dai

inflammation causes inflammation and insulin resistance in other insulin-sensitive tissues ( Rosen & Spiegelman 2006 , Guilherme et al . 2008 , Reilly & Saltiel 2017 ). Our results also were in line with previous studies that showed lipolysis in AT promotes

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Stefania Carobbio, Barry Rosen, and Antonio Vidal-Puig

profile and mature brown adipocytes displayed functional properties such as increased lipolysis in response to β-adrenergic stimulation and oxygen consumption levels. Stable, faithful maintenance of both the brown and white adipocyte phenotypes could be

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Jacqueline M Wallace, John S Milne, Raymond P Aitken, and Clare L Adam

the first report on adipose tissue HSL gene expression in relation to offspring gender, and the higher expression in males compared with females is commensurate with steroid hormone activation of HSL leading to enhanced lipolysis ( Mayes & Watson