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Laura Calzà, Mercedes Fernandez, and Luciana Giardino

among young adults, with 12 000 new diagnoses per year in the United States alone ( Hirtz et al . 2007 ). Different pathogenic events involving many cell types occur in the course of the disease. According to the classical view, inflammation and immune

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Yan-hui Bai, Yong Lv, Wei-qun Wang, Guang-li Sun, and Hao-hao Zhang

cell wall in gram-negative bacteria, and it induces inflammation by promoting the secretion of cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor ( Marton et al. 2014 , Yang et al. 2014 ). LPS is often used to stimulate HCFs

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Mohamed H Noureldein, Sara Bitar, Natalie Youssef, Sami Azar, and Assaad A Eid

, Khan & Jena 2014 , 2015 , Meier & Wagner 2014 , Dirice et al. 2017 ), which can explain the alteration in the inflammatory markers observed in diabetes. Furthermore, another mechanistic factor that has been shown to play a role in inflammation is

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Maria Jacoba Kruger, Maria Martha Conradie, Magda Conradie, and Mari van de Vyver

signalling pathways that contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation and hyperglycaemia ( Chen et al. 2016 , Fontaine et al. 2016 , Zachar et al. 2016 , Harting et al. 2018 ). A reduction in the size of the circulating stem

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Yihong Wan and Ronald M Evans

PPARδ to inhibit FKN transcription. Emerging evidence reveals that PPARγ is a key regulator of both lipid metabolism and inflammation. The ability to integrate metabolic signaling and inflammatory signaling makes PPARγ an attractive target for

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Ralf Stumm and Volker Höllt

relevance ( Stumm et al. 2002 ). This is emphasized by the fact that SDF-1 limits cerebral inflammation during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by keeping CXCR4-expressing mononuclear cells in the perivascular space and thereby limiting

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N Martínez-Micaelo, N González-Abuín, A Ardévol, M Pinent, E Petretto, J Behmoaras, and M Blay

Introduction A prolonged excess of nutrient consumption results in the continuous saturation of the white adipose tissue's ability to store energy as fat, triggering a cytokine-driven response that underlie an obesity-induced inflammation. Thus

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Xueyao Yin, Fenping Zheng, Qianqian Pan, Saifei Zhang, Dan Yu, Zhiye Xu, and Hong Li

). Similarly, cleaved caspase 3, cleaved caspase 9, Bax, CHOP and PUMA were also significantly increased in the liver of mice fed a HFD, which was further exacerbated by glucose injections ( Fig. 3 D). Glucose fluctuation exacerbates liver inflammation and

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Matthias Laudes

signalling in humans is not only important in adipose tissue development but also in pancreatic islet biology ( Lyssenko et al . 2007 ). WNT molecules and low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue Infiltration of adipose tissue by macrophages and lymphocytes

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Rebecca H Ritchie, Eser J Zerenturk, Darnel Prakoso, and Anna C Calkin

promoting inflammation, apoptosis and hypertrophy ( Goldberg et al . 2012 ). The promotion of insulin resistance drives a further increase in insulin levels, which have pathological effects on the heart per se . FAs can also influence contractility as