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A R Rodrigues, D Sousa, H Almeida, and A M Gouveia

. 1993 ). MC2R is also found in the skin ( Slominski et al . 1996 ) and in mouse adipocytes ( Boston & Cone 1996 ), where it has been suggested to promote lipolysis ( Boston 1999 , Moller et al . 2011 ) and decrease leptin production ( Norman et al

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Dong-Jae Jun, Kyung-Yoon Na, Wanil Kim, Dongoh Kwak, Eun-Jeong Kwon, Jong Hyuk Yoon, Kyungmoo Yea, Hyeongji Lee, Jaeyoon Kim, Pann-Gill Suh, Sung Ho Ryu, and Kyong-Tai Kim

leptin regulation ( Hoggard et al . 2004 , Harmer et al . 2008 ). The observed effects of ACTH and α-MSH on IL6 expression and secretion occur at concentrations similar to those that induce lipolysis and inhibit leptin expression in adipocytes. We have

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Giulia Cantini, Martina Trabucco, Alessandra Di Franco, Edoardo Mannucci, and Michaela Luconi

-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), but also by glucagon itself in a paracrine way ( Wewer et al. 2016 , Müller et al. 2017 ). Glucagon reduces food intake in rodents and humans; moreover, a sustained activation of GCGR has been demonstrated to enhance lipolysis

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Liping Luo, Wanxiang Jiang, Hui Liu, Jicheng Bu, Ping Tang, Chongyangzi Du, Zhipeng Xu, Hairong Luo, Bilian Liu, Bo Xiao, Zhiguang Zhou, and Feng Liu

expressed from the maternally inherited allele in periphery tissues such as fat, muscle and liver tissues ( Lim et al . 2004 ). Recently, we have identified GRB10 as a negative-feedback regulator of the mTORC1 signaling pathway promotes lipolysis and

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Edra London, Maria Nesterova, and Constantine A Stratakis

response to obesogenic diet. The most extensively studied model is the diet-induced obesity (DIO)-resistant PKA RIIβ KO mouse that has elevated energy expenditure and basal lipolysis ( Cummings et al . 1996 , Planas et al . 1999 ) improved insulin

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Hyeon Young Park, Hye Suk Kang, and Seung-Soon Im

the liver and skeletal muscle under physiological conditions; thereafter, FAs are broken down through β-oxidation in the mitochondria or are stored as TGs ( Rambold et al . 2015 ). Notably, stored hepatic TGs predominantly originate from the lipolysis

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Rhonda D Kineman, Mercedes del Rio-Moreno, and André Sarmento-Cabral

1 deficiency is consistent with an increase in GH actions, where GH antagonizes the actions of insulin and enhances lipid oxidation ( Moller & Jorgensen 2009 ). Also, GH can promote white adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis under physiologic conditions

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Janne Lebeck

used for the synthesis of TG in the fed state is derived from glycolysis. During states of increased energy demand, such as fasting and exercise, adipocyte lipolysis is increased by activation of adipose TG lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase, which

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Inna Astapova

) Src2 −/− (Ncoa2) Lean, increased glucose tolerance, and insulin resistance on high-fat diet. Increased basal and stimulated lipolysis, elevated EE PPARG Picard et al. (2002) Unlikely: the phenotype is opposite of what would be expected in

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Paola Moreno, Bernardo Nuche-Berenguer, Irene Gutiérrez-Rojas, Alicia Acitores, Verónica Sancho, Isabel Valverde, Nieves González, and María L Villanueva-Peñacarrillo

rat liver, skeletal muscle and fat, in an insulin-independent manner ( Alcántara et al . 1997 , Morales et al . 1997 , Sancho et al . 2005 ), as well as lipogenesis and lipolysis in the latter cells ( Sancho et al . 2005 ). In rat muscles, Ex-4