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Amanda J Rickard and Morag J Young

-γ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and play important roles in type I inflammation, destruction of tissue, killing of intracellular parasites and tumour resistance. In contrast, alternatively activated macrophages response to factors such as IL-4 or IL3

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Ying Li, Fuzhe Ma, Huimin Li, Yuguo Song, Huan Zhang, Ziping Jiang, and Hao Wu

prolonged and intense inflammation ( Kampfer et al . 2005 , Lan et al . 2013 , Davis et al . 2018 ), which impair the normal process of wound healing. Therefore, blocking oxidative stress or inflammation under diabetic conditions may break this vicious

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Feng Wang, Lu Wang, Yifeng Wang, Dai Li, Tianpeng Hu, Manyi Sun, and Ping Lei

risk of mild cognitive impairment ( Wang et al . 2017 a , b , c ). Furthermore, it is believed that oxidative stress and inflammation caused by metabolic disorders lead to the quantity reduction and dysfunction of hippocampus neurons, which may

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Hong Zhu, Wei Cao, Peng Zhao, Jieyu Wang, Yuying Qian, and Yun Li

suggest that inappropriate activation of cardiac Ang II contributes significantly to the process of cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and inflammation ( Snijder et al. 2015 , Ferrario et al. 2016 ). Several signalling molecules have been implicated in the

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Rong Wan, Yunxin Liu, Li Li, Chao Zhu, Lai Jin, and Shengnan Li

Introduction Cardiovascular diseases are the leading fatal diseases. Increased evidence shows that vascular inflammation plays a key role in the initiation and progression of many diseases, including atherosclerosis ( Ricciotti & FitzGerald 2011

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Custodia García-Jiménez, Jose Manuel García-Martínez, Ana Chocarro-Calvo, and Antonio De la Vieja

population may be attributed to treatment for diabetes, to hormonal disorders, to the status of chronic inflammation and to metabolic alterations underlying the diseases (summarized in Fig. 1 ). Moreover, diabetes may also develop following tumor

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Ting Qi, Yanming Chen, Honggui Li, Ya Pei, Shih-Lung Woo, Xin Guo, Jiajia Zhao, Xiaoxian Qian, Joseph Awika, Yuqing Huo, and Chaodong Wu

Introduction Chronic low-grade adipose tissue inflammation is a characteristic of obesity ( Lumeng et al. 2007 , Weisberg et al. 2003 , Xu et al. 2003 ) and critically contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes ( Greenberg

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Michael Wöltje, Beate Tschöke, Verena von Bülow, Ralf Westenfeld, Bernd Denecke, Steffen Gräber, and Willi Jahnen-Dechent

% liver-derived. Thus, Ahsg is a major hepatic serum protein. A thorough understanding of Ahsg gene regulation during inflammation and recovery is important for several reasons. A well-documented physiological function of Ahsg is the systemic inhibition of

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Irit Hochberg, Innocence Harvey, Quynh T Tran, Erin J Stephenson, Ariel L Barkan, Alan R Saltiel, William F Chandler, and Dave Bridges

ceramide species ( Fig. 7 B, q >0.25). Inflammation Several pathways involved in immune function were downregulated in the adipose tissue from Cushing's disease patients. This is consistent with the effects of cortisol in suppressing immune function

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Laura Calzà, Mercedes Fernandez, and Luciana Giardino

among young adults, with 12 000 new diagnoses per year in the United States alone ( Hirtz et al . 2007 ). Different pathogenic events involving many cell types occur in the course of the disease. According to the classical view, inflammation and immune