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Kay E Garnett, Philip Chapman, Julie A Chambers, Ian D Waddell, and David S W Boam

predetermined β-cell dysfunction can arise via different pathways, such as deranged mitochondrial function, reduced β-cell mass and decreased insulin synthesis ( Wang et al. 2002 ). The genetic predisposition to non-MODY T2D is probably due to more subtle

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Sun-Ji Park, Tae-Shin Kim, Choon-Keun Park, Sang-Hee Lee, Jin-Man Kim, Kyu-Sun Lee, In-kyu Lee, Jeen-Woo Park, Mark A Lawson, and Dong-Seok Lee

stress-induced activation of ATF6 has been shown to impair cAMP-stimulated hepatic gluconeogenesis in the liver ( Seo et al . 2010 ) along with insulin synthesis in pancreatic β-cells ( Seo et al . 2008 ). Therefore, we examined which of the three

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Jiayu Jin, Xinhong Wang, Xiuling Zhi, and Dan Meng

.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.305510 ) You L Wang N Yin D Wang L Jin F Zhu Y Yuan Q De W 2016 Downregulation of long noncoding RNA Meg3 affects insulin synthesis and secretion in mouse pancreatic beta cells . Journal of Cellular Physiology 852

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Kira Meyerovich, Fernanda Ortis, Florent Allagnat, and Alessandra K Cardozo

through the ER ( Eizirik et al. 2008 ). Therefore, β-cells express high levels of the UPR transducers IRE1α and PERK, which are necessary for strict quality control of pro-insulin synthesis and to limit oxidative stress induced during the insulin folding

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Oro Uchenunu, Michael Pollak, Ivan Topisirovic, and Laura Hulea

, hyperlipidemia, a decrease in glucose-stimulated insulin synthesis and secretion and weight loss ( Fraenkel et al . 2008 ). Overall, rapamycin suppresses key metabolic processes by inhibiting MTORC1 . Rapamycin and its analogs (rapalogs; Fig. 1 ) are FDA