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Liping Luo, Wanxiang Jiang, Hui Liu, Jicheng Bu, Ping Tang, Chongyangzi Du, Zhipeng Xu, Hairong Luo, Bilian Liu, Bo Xiao, Zhiguang Zhou, and Feng Liu

high-fat-fed rats . Diabetes 40 1397 – 1403 . ( https://doi.org/10.2337/diab.40.11.1397 ) 10.2337/diab.40.11.1397 1936601 Lee YS Li P Huh JY Hwang IJ Lu M Kim JI Ham M Talukdar S Chen A Lu WJ , et al . 2011 Inflammation is

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Chung Thong Lim, Blerina Kola, and Márta Korbonits

also suppress inflammatory signalling cascades associated with lipid accumulation in the liver and skeletal muscle ( Febbraio 2007 ). The ischaemic heart releases macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF), an upstream regulator of inflammation. MIF stimulates

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Shalinee Dhayal, Francesco P Zummo, Matthew W Anderson, Patricia Thomas, Hannah J Welters, Catherine Arden, and Noel G Morgan

. ( https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.01554 ) Rostamirad A Ebrahimi SSS Sadeghi A Taghikhani M Meshkani R 2018 Palmitate-induced impairment of autophagy turnover leads to increased apoptosis and inflammation in peripheral blood mononuclear

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L J Moran, P A Mundra, H J Teede, and P J Meikle

cardiovascular disease (CVD) including hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, inflammation, oxidative stress, procoagulation, impaired fibrinolysis and early vascular markers of atherosclerosis including endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness, increased carotid

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Özlem Erdogdu, Linnéa Eriksson, Hua Xu, Åke Sjöholm, Qimin Zhang, and Thomas Nyström

TNF-α-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in endothelial cells . Atherosclerosis 221 375 – 382 . ( doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.12.039 ). Steinberg HO Paradisi G Hook G Crowder K Cronin J Baron AD 2000 Free fatty acid

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Ruiqi Ma, Lu Gan, Hui Ren, Andrew Harrison, and Jiang Qian

, conjunctival redness, chemosis, caruncle or plical inflammation, spontaneous orbital pain, and gaze evoked orbital pain. The control subjects were volunteers without thyroid disease or other autoimmune disease. The exclusion criteria were diabetes or impaired

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James E P Brown, David J Onyango, Manjunath Ramanjaneya, Alex C Conner, Snehal T Patel, Simon J Dunmore, and Harpal S Randeva

Endocrinology 20 183 – 193 . Trayhurn P Wood IS 2005 Signalling role of adipose tissue: adipokines and inflammation in obesity . Biochemical Society Transactions 33 1078 – 1081 . Xie H Tang SY Luo XH Huang J Cui RR Yuan LQ Zhou HD

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Cristina L Esteves, Val Kelly, Valérie Bégay, Simon G Lillico, Achim Leutz, Jonathan R Seckl, and Karen E Chapman

.0606179103 ). Shoelson SE Lee J Goldfine AB 2006 Inflammation and insulin resistance . Journal of Clinical Investigation 116 1793 – 1801 . ( doi:10.1172/JCI29069 ). Siu F Chen C Zhong C Kilberg MS 2001 CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein

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Z López-Ibarra, J Modrego, M Valero-Muñoz, P Rodríguez-Sierra, J J Zamorano-León, A González-Cantalapiedra, N de las Heras, S Ballesteros, V Lahera, and A J López-Farré

inflammation and various endocrine functions ( Trayhurn & Beattie 2001 ). Glucose is an essential component for adipose tissue metabolism, primarily to provide glycerol-3-phosphate to form the backbone of triacylglycerol ( Athenstaedt & Daum 2006 ). In this

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Mark C Turner, Neil R W Martin, Darren J Player, Richard A Ferguson, Patrick Wheeler, Charlotte J Green, Elizabeth C Akam, and Mark P Lewis

observed in disease states ( Ducluzeau et al . 2001 ). These changes could be mediated by other factors, such as low-grade chronic inflammation and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines ( Ruge et al . 2009 ). With the previously documented role