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Alexander Kot, Zhendong A Zhong, Hongliang Zhang, Yu-An Evan Lay, Nancy E Lane, and Wei Yao

-kappa B signaling pathway were downregulated in PRcKO males. Notably, genes in the antigen receptor signaling and genes involved in regulating inflammation downstream of NFkB were downregulated. Three of the four upregulated genes, Bcl2 , B cl2l1 and

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Ruiqi Ma, Lu Gan, Hui Ren, Andrew Harrison, and Jiang Qian

, conjunctival redness, chemosis, caruncle or plical inflammation, spontaneous orbital pain, and gaze evoked orbital pain. The control subjects were volunteers without thyroid disease or other autoimmune disease. The exclusion criteria were diabetes or impaired

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Liping Luo, Wanxiang Jiang, Hui Liu, Jicheng Bu, Ping Tang, Chongyangzi Du, Zhipeng Xu, Hairong Luo, Bilian Liu, Bo Xiao, Zhiguang Zhou, and Feng Liu

high-fat-fed rats . Diabetes 40 1397 – 1403 . ( ) 10.2337/diab.40.11.1397 1936601 Lee YS Li P Huh JY Hwang IJ Lu M Kim JI Ham M Talukdar S Chen A Lu WJ , et al . 2011 Inflammation is

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Yajie Guo, Junjie Yu, Chunxia Wang, Kai Li, Bin Liu, Ying Du, Fei Xiao, Shanghai Chen, and Feifan Guo

.26672 ) 23929732 10.1002/hep.26672 Bradbury MW 2006 Lipid metabolism and liver inflammation. I. Hepatic fatty acid uptake: possible role in steatosis . American Journal of Physiology: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 290 G194 – G198

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Sunan Li, Juxiong Liu, Qingkang Lv, Chuan Zhang, Shiyao Xu, Dongxue Yang, Bingxu Huang, Yalong Zeng, Yingjie Gao, and Wei Wang

proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated macrophages through distinct signaling pathways . Mediators of Inflammation 2013 548073 . ( doi:10.1155/2013/548073 ) Li B Zeng M He W Huang X Luo L Zhang H Deng DY 2015 Ghrelin

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Chung Thong Lim, Blerina Kola, and Márta Korbonits

also suppress inflammatory signalling cascades associated with lipid accumulation in the liver and skeletal muscle ( Febbraio 2007 ). The ischaemic heart releases macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF), an upstream regulator of inflammation. MIF stimulates

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Yingyu Feng, Lei Su, Xing Zhong, Wei Guohong, Haipeng Xiao, Yanbing Li, and Lingling Xiu

MAPK signaling pathway. MAPKs are classical signal transducers that are well characterized as mediators of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and inflammation. MAPKs exert their effects through the ERK1/2, p38, JNK, and ERK5 pathways. Although the

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Young Sun Kang, Yun Gyu Park, Bo Kyung Kim, Sang Youb Han, Yi Hwa Jee, Kum Hyun Han, Mi Hwa Lee, Hye Kyoung Song, Dae Ryong Cha, Shin Wook Kang, and Dae Suk Han

pretreatment with losartan, which suggests that the AT1 receptor is involved in Ang-II-mediated VEGF synthesis. P38 MAPK is a member of the MAPK family and plays an essential role in regulating many cellular processes, including inflammation, cell

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Yanxia Tang and GuoDong Li

to relaxation of the blood vessel ( Moncada et al . 1988 , Kuchan & Frangos 1994 ). In addition, NO plays an important role in inhibiting inflammation and atherosclerosis as it reduces the adhesion and interaction of white cells with endothelium

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Eugenia Mata-Greenwood, P Naomi Jackson, William J Pearce, and Lubo Zhang

Introduction Glucocorticoids are therapeutic agents used for reducing inflammation via targeting the glucocorticoid receptor ( NR3C1, GR ) of immune cells ( Auphan et al . 1995 , Barnes 1998 ). However, glucocorticoids also target the GR