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Sunan Li, Juxiong Liu, Qingkang Lv, Chuan Zhang, Shiyao Xu, Dongxue Yang, Bingxu Huang, Yalong Zeng, Yingjie Gao, and Wei Wang

proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated macrophages through distinct signaling pathways . Mediators of Inflammation 2013 548073 . ( doi:10.1155/2013/548073 ) Li B Zeng M He W Huang X Luo L Zhang H Deng DY 2015 Ghrelin

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Roger López-Bellido, Katherine Barreto-Valer, and Raquel E Rodríguez

, striatum, mesencephalon, medulla oblongata, and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord; Shults et al . 1984 , Maeno et al . 1993 ) and its activation has been implicated in different processes such as pain, synaptic transmission, neurogenic inflammation

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Yingyu Feng, Lei Su, Xing Zhong, Wei Guohong, Haipeng Xiao, Yanbing Li, and Lingling Xiu

MAPK signaling pathway. MAPKs are classical signal transducers that are well characterized as mediators of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and inflammation. MAPKs exert their effects through the ERK1/2, p38, JNK, and ERK5 pathways. Although the

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Shalinee Dhayal, Francesco P Zummo, Matthew W Anderson, Patricia Thomas, Hannah J Welters, Catherine Arden, and Noel G Morgan

. ( https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.01554 ) Rostamirad A Ebrahimi SSS Sadeghi A Taghikhani M Meshkani R 2018 Palmitate-induced impairment of autophagy turnover leads to increased apoptosis and inflammation in peripheral blood mononuclear

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Rosalia C M Simmen, Melissa E Heard, Angela M Simmen, Maria Theresa M Montales, Meera Marji, Samantha Scanlon, and John Mark P Pabona

that a number of inflammation-associated genes are direct PGR targets (e.g. IL11 and CXCL1 ; Cordeaux et al . 2010 , Kavandi et al . 2012 ), results indicate that the deregulated expression of numerous inflammatory mediators may be a direct

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ChengCheng Lin, Bei Shao, YuLei Zhou, XiaoTing Niu, and YuanShao Lin

long-term memory storage . PNAS 105 2711 – 2716 . ( doi:10.1073/pnas.0711863105 ). Bilbo SD Tsang V 2010 Enduring consequences of maternal obesity for brain inflammation and behavior of offspring . FASEB Journal 24 2104 – 2115 . ( doi

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Laura Sabatino, Claudia Kusmic, Giuseppina Nicolini, Rosario Amato, Giovanni Casini, Giorgio Iervasi, and Silvana Balzan

antagonist to promote tumor angiogenesis and inflammation ( Maisonpierre et al. 1997 , Fiedler et al. 2006 , Thomas & Augustin 2009 ). At the same time, both Ang1 and Ang2 could also exert their activity in a Tie2-independent manner through integrins

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Leping Zhao, Yong Pan, Kesong Peng, Zhe Wang, Jieli Li, Dan Li, Chao Tong, Yi Wang, and Guang Liang

Clinical Pharmacology 51 830 – 841 . ( doi:10.1177/0091270010374470 ). Glass CK Olefsky JM 2012 Inflammation and lipid signaling in the etiology of insulin resistance . Cell Metabolism 15 635 – 645 . ( doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2012

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Young Sun Kang, Yun Gyu Park, Bo Kyung Kim, Sang Youb Han, Yi Hwa Jee, Kum Hyun Han, Mi Hwa Lee, Hye Kyoung Song, Dae Ryong Cha, Shin Wook Kang, and Dae Suk Han

pretreatment with losartan, which suggests that the AT1 receptor is involved in Ang-II-mediated VEGF synthesis. P38 MAPK is a member of the MAPK family and plays an essential role in regulating many cellular processes, including inflammation, cell

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Jin-Seung Choung, Young-Sun Lee, and Hee-Sook Jun

cell inflammation through a calcium and AMPK dependent mechanism . PLoS ONE 9 e97554 . ( doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097554 ) Layer P Holst JJ Grandt D Goebell H 1995 Ileal release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Association