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Bettina Sederquist, Paola Fernandez-Vojvodich, Farasat Zaman, and Lars Sävendahl

the normal regulation of longitudinal bone growth ( Govoni et al . 2007 ). Impact of inflammation on bone growth Growth is often impaired in children with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD

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Carla Caruso, Lila Carniglia, Daniela Durand, Teresa N Scimonelli, and Mercedes Lasaga

response Inflammation is a physiological response to pathogens, injury, or damage, but when it is exacerbated or becomes chronic, it can contribute to the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. There are several mediators of this response such as cytokines

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Jiung-Pang Huang, Sheng-Chieh Hsu, Yaa-Jyuhn James Meir, Po-Shiuan Hsieh, Chih-Chun Chang, Kuan-Hsing Chen, Jan-Kan Chen, and Li-Man Hung

Introduction Obesity is associated with several complications, including diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) ( Malnick & Knobler 2006 , Poirier et al . 2006 , Nguyen & El-Serag 2010 ). Chronic low-grade inflammation and

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Elisa Maseroli, Ilaria Cellai, Sandra Filippi, Paolo Comeglio, Sarah Cipriani, Giulia Rastrelli, Martina Rosi, Flavia Sorbi, Massimiliano Fambrini, Felice Petraglia, Roberta Amoriello, Clara Ballerini, Letizia Lombardelli, Marie-Pierre Piccinni, Erica Sarchielli, Giulia Guarnieri, Annamaria Morelli, Mario Maggi, and Linda Vignozzi

( Vignozzi et al. 2012 a , Comeglio et al. 2016 , Simon et al. 2018 ). Adding layer to this complexity, chronic inflammation is a subtle underlying factor of GSM symptoms. The vaginal innate immune system is a unique and complex immunologic

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Heather C Denroche and C Bruce Verchere

in islet graft inflammation and dysfunction ( Andersson et al . 2008 , Udayasankar et al . 2009 , Potter et al . 2010 , 2015 , Westwell-Roper et al . 2011 , Westermark et al . 2012 ). In this review, we examine the underexplored yet

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Rebecca Roy, Caitlyn Nguyen-Ngo, and Martha Lappas

peripheral insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation. Alterations in the insulin signalling pathway, abnormal subcellular localisation of glucose transporters (GLUTs) and reduced insulin-mediated glucose transport have been found in skeletal muscle of

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Qinyun Ma, Jianxia Fan, Jiqiu Wang, Shuai Yang, Qing Cong, Rui Wang, Qianqian Lv, Ruixin Liu, and Guang Ning

Introduction Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects 2–5% of pregnant women ( Gilmartin et al . 2008 ), which is characterised by maternal peripheral insulin resistance (IR) and increased inflammation. Increased amounts of placental hormones

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Ji Chen, Chao Li, Wenjie Liu, Bin Yan, Xiaoling Hu, and Fengrui Yang

inflammation triggered by miR-155 antagomir was identified during the current study, which was evidenced by a reduction in the levels of inflammatory factors. This result was in line other previous studies. For example, miR-155 antagomir has also been reported

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Yi Lu, Wang-sheng Wang, Yi-kai Lin, Jiang-wen Lu, Wen-jiao Li, Chu-yue Zhang, and Kang Sun

cortisol regeneration in the fetal membranes is believed to be responsible for the accumulation of cortisol in the fetal membranes with the advance of gestational age ( Wang et al. 2018 ). Gestational tissue inflammation with consequently increased

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Shadab Abadpour, Bente Halvorsen, Afaf Sahraoui, Olle Korsgren, Pål Aukrust, and Hanne Scholz

islets against inflammation- and glucose-induced toxicity ( Hasnain et al . 2014 ). We have previously reported that LIGHT could impair human islet function at least partly via pro-apoptotic effects ( Halvorsen et al . 2016 ). Here, we showed that the