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Ting Xiao, Xiuci Liang, Hailan Liu, Feng Zhang, Wen Meng, and Fang Hu

that stress-induced HSP60 might stimulate inflammation resulting in metabolic dysfunction and insulin resistance, but the underlying mechanism still requires further investigation. Interestingly, it was reported that rosiglitazone enhanced insulin

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Dong Zhao, Jinhua Jia, and Hong Shao

plays an important part in many different physiological and pathological processes, including the growth and differentiation of organism, cell proliferation and tumor, inflammation and endocrine diseases ( Jackson & Levin 2012 ). To date, a great number

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Kelly L Short, A Daniel Bird, Bennet K L Seow, Judy Ng, Annie R A McDougall, Megan J Wallace, Stuart B Hooper, and Timothy J Cole

provide evidence for a protective effect of ADAMTS 12 against bronchial inflammation that is in line with the anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoid steroids ( Paulissen et al . 2012 ). Other studies have demonstrated that GCs can induce expression

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Hannah E Lapp, Andrew A Bartlett, and Richard G Hunter

exchange of information with the nucleus ( Picard et al. 2018 a ). Mitochondria are essential to physiological processes fundamental in maintaining multicellular life including apoptosis, inflammation and thermogenesis ( Picard et al. 2016

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Belen Brie, Ana Ornstein, Maria Cecilia Ramirez, Isabel Lacau-Mengido, and Damasia Becu-Villalobos

). The prolactin receptor has multiple homeostatic roles ( Goffin et al . 2002 ), and, in particular, it may protect the liver from NAFLD ( Shao et al . 2018 , Zhang et al . 2018 ), prevent HCC and inflammation ( Hartwell et al . 2014 ), and modify

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Chunmei Wang and Yong Xu

sexual dimorphism ( Tarrade et al. 2015 ). Male placenta decreases size in response to maternal high salt or high-fat intake, which is associated with increased inflammation in the placenta and increased fetal exposure to free fatty acids and glucose

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William Davies

-modifying factors (SUMFs) ( Mueller et al. 2015 ). STS activity appears to be increased in response to stress/inflammation in various tissues with the gene being a target of NF-ΚB; the resultant free steroid products, notably estrogens, may act as inflammation

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Ana Pestana, João Vinagre, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões, and Paula Soares

, 3, 9 and 10 Repression of ROS-dependent intracellular signalling and gene induction Inflammation Cancer progression Invasion ( Yin et al . 2000 ) ( Zuo et al . 2011 ) ( Mattiussi et al . 2012 ) ( Akiyama et al . 2003 ) ( Ghosh et al . 2012

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Francesco Maria Egro

of this figure available via . Direct infection Viral infection of the β-cells induces cell cytolysis, which leads to a raised immune response and inflammation. Molecular mimicry Sequences between foreign and

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Alexander Kot, Zhendong A Zhong, Hongliang Zhang, Yu-An Evan Lay, Nancy E Lane, and Wei Yao

-kappa B signaling pathway were downregulated in PRcKO males. Notably, genes in the antigen receptor signaling and genes involved in regulating inflammation downstream of NFkB were downregulated. Three of the four upregulated genes, Bcl2 , B cl2l1 and