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Hannah E Lapp, Andrew A Bartlett, and Richard G Hunter

exchange of information with the nucleus ( Picard et al. 2018 a ). Mitochondria are essential to physiological processes fundamental in maintaining multicellular life including apoptosis, inflammation and thermogenesis ( Picard et al. 2016

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Yang Mi, Na Guo, Tongqiang He, Jing Ji, Zhibin Li, and Pu Huang

was reported to regulate retinal inflammation through suppressing adenosine deaminase-2 in diabetes ( Fulzele et al . 2015 ). miR-192, miR-194, miR-204, and miR-215 were found enriched in human kidney ( Sun et al . 2004 ), where they target genes

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Belen Brie, Ana Ornstein, Maria Cecilia Ramirez, Isabel Lacau-Mengido, and Damasia Becu-Villalobos

). The prolactin receptor has multiple homeostatic roles ( Goffin et al . 2002 ), and, in particular, it may protect the liver from NAFLD ( Shao et al . 2018 , Zhang et al . 2018 ), prevent HCC and inflammation ( Hartwell et al . 2014 ), and modify

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William Davies

-modifying factors (SUMFs) ( Mueller et al. 2015 ). STS activity appears to be increased in response to stress/inflammation in various tissues with the gene being a target of NF-ΚB; the resultant free steroid products, notably estrogens, may act as inflammation

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Ana Pestana, João Vinagre, Manuel Sobrinho-Simões, and Paula Soares

, 3, 9 and 10 Repression of ROS-dependent intracellular signalling and gene induction Inflammation Cancer progression Invasion ( Yin et al . 2000 ) ( Zuo et al . 2011 ) ( Mattiussi et al . 2012 ) ( Akiyama et al . 2003 ) ( Ghosh et al . 2012

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Chunmei Wang and Yong Xu

sexual dimorphism ( Tarrade et al. 2015 ). Male placenta decreases size in response to maternal high salt or high-fat intake, which is associated with increased inflammation in the placenta and increased fetal exposure to free fatty acids and glucose

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Yanxia Tang and GuoDong Li

to relaxation of the blood vessel ( Moncada et al . 1988 , Kuchan & Frangos 1994 ). In addition, NO plays an important role in inhibiting inflammation and atherosclerosis as it reduces the adhesion and interaction of white cells with endothelium

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Akira Uruno, Ken Matsuda, Naoya Noguchi, Takeo Yoshikawa, Masataka Kudo, Fumitoshi Satoh, William E Rainey, Xiao-Gang Hui, Jun-ichi Akahira, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Hironobu Sasano, Hiroshi Okamoto, Sadayoshi Ito, and Akira Sugawara

D Amiri F Virdis A Neves MF Schiffrin EL 2002 Structure, endothelial function, cell growth, and inflammation in blood vessels of angiotensin II-infused rats: role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ . Circulation 105 2296

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Alexander Kot, Zhendong A Zhong, Hongliang Zhang, Yu-An Evan Lay, Nancy E Lane, and Wei Yao

-kappa B signaling pathway were downregulated in PRcKO males. Notably, genes in the antigen receptor signaling and genes involved in regulating inflammation downstream of NFkB were downregulated. Three of the four upregulated genes, Bcl2 , B cl2l1 and

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Rosalia C M Simmen, Melissa E Heard, Angela M Simmen, Maria Theresa M Montales, Meera Marji, Samantha Scanlon, and John Mark P Pabona

that a number of inflammation-associated genes are direct PGR targets (e.g. IL11 and CXCL1 ; Cordeaux et al . 2010 , Kavandi et al . 2012 ), results indicate that the deregulated expression of numerous inflammatory mediators may be a direct