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Jinghua Peng and Ling He

). Inactivation of IRS2 in mice results in the development of diabetes due to insulin resistance and decreases insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells ( Tamemoto et al . 1994 , Kido et al . 2000 ). Since defective hepatic insulin sensitivity in type 2

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Custodia García-Jiménez, Jose Manuel García-Martínez, Ana Chocarro-Calvo, and Antonio De la Vieja

), both of which may induce secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and hormonal disorders, such as increased insulin secretion, and therefore both lead to increased proliferation and mutations. The effects of hyperglycemia are detailed in Fig. 3 . For

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Paola Moreno, Bernardo Nuche-Berenguer, Irene Gutiérrez-Rojas, Alicia Acitores, Verónica Sancho, Isabel Valverde, Nieves González, and María L Villanueva-Peñacarrillo

present, little is known about the effect of a sustained action of GLP-1 on the glucose metabolism in the main tissues participating in the hexose homeostasis in the IR state, similar to that of Ex-4 in the same situation of altered insulin secretion and

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Kazuyoshi Ukena, Tomohiro Osugi, Jérôme Leprince, Hubert Vaudry, and Kazuyoshi Tsutsui

human adrenocortical cells ( Ramanjaneya et al . 2013 ). In the rat pancreas, glucose-evoked insulin secretion is reduced by perfusion of 26RFa/QRFP ( Egido et al . 2007 ). In the adipocyte cell line 3T3-L1, 26RFa/QRFP inhibits isoproterenol

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Srividya Vasu, R Charlotte Moffett, Neville H McClenaghan, and Peter R Flatt

Sweetland MA Wang JL Lancaster JR Jr McDaniel ML 1993 Nitric oxide mediates cytokine-induced inhibition of insulin secretion by human islets of Langerhans . PNAS 90 1731 – 1735 . ( doi:10.1073/pnas.90.5.1731 ). Eizirik DL Kutlu B

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Endong Zhu, Juanjuan Zhang, Jie Zhou, Hairui Yuan, Wei Zhao, and Baoli Wang

( Banerjee et al . 2003 ). Overexpressing KLF7 decreases the differentiation of the human preadipocyte and inhibits glucose-induced insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cell line ( Kawamura et al . 2006 ). Sue and coworkers reported that (I) the mRNA level of

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Ana Luísa Neves, João Coelho, Luciana Couto, Adelino Leite-Moreira, and Roberto Roncon-Albuquerque Jr

prebiotics, Bifidobacterium spp. is positively correlated with an improved glucose tolerance, glucose-induced insulin secretion, and normalized inflammatory tone, decreasing endotoxemia, plasma, and adipose tissue proinflammatory cytokines Prebiotic

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Yu-Guang Ma, Liang Liang, Yin-Bin Zhang, Bao-Feng Wang, Yun-Gang Bai, Zhi-Jun Dai, Man-Jiang Xie, and Zhong-Wei Wang

and the reduction in insulin secretion capacity ( Zhang et al . 2008 ). Vascular disease is one of the important factors for the increased risks of stroke, heart attack and organ damage in diabetic patients ( Fernández-Velasco et al . 2014

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M Blandino-Rosano, G Perez-Arana, J M Mellado-Gil, C Segundo, and M Aguilar-Diosdado

tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inhibit the glucose-induced insulin secretion and play an important role in β-cell damage ( Andersen et al . 1994 , Maedler et al . 2002 ). β-cell homeostasis appears to be a balance between death and regeneration such

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Giulia Cantini, Martina Trabucco, Alessandra Di Franco, Edoardo Mannucci, and Michaela Luconi

GLP-1R has been recently demonstrated in pancreatic beta-cells; in these cells, in conditions of high glucose, glucagon can stimulate insulin secretion through a specific binding to beta-cell GLP-1R ( Svendsen et al. 2018 ). As mentioned earlier