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Tingting Ren, Jinhan He, Hongfeng Jiang, Luxia Zu, Shenshen Pu, Xiaohui Guo, and Guoheng Xu

under hyperglycemic conditions, thereby further increasing the level of circulating FFA and insulin resistance. The biguanide, metformin, is widely used for the treatment of NIDDM. Unlike the sulfonylureas that stimulate insulin secretion

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Jinghua Peng and Ling He

). Inactivation of IRS2 in mice results in the development of diabetes due to insulin resistance and decreases insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells ( Tamemoto et al . 1994 , Kido et al . 2000 ). Since defective hepatic insulin sensitivity in type 2

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Custodia García-Jiménez, Jose Manuel García-Martínez, Ana Chocarro-Calvo, and Antonio De la Vieja

), both of which may induce secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and hormonal disorders, such as increased insulin secretion, and therefore both lead to increased proliferation and mutations. The effects of hyperglycemia are detailed in Fig. 3 . For

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Changxue Lu and Sheue-Yann Cheng

( Jatwa et al . 2007 ). Moreover, in rats with a high-fat diet and in a hyperthyroid state, administration of the PPARα agonist Wy14,643 restores glucose tolerance by enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and relieves the effect of

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Srividya Vasu, R Charlotte Moffett, Neville H McClenaghan, and Peter R Flatt

Sweetland MA Wang JL Lancaster JR Jr McDaniel ML 1993 Nitric oxide mediates cytokine-induced inhibition of insulin secretion by human islets of Langerhans . PNAS 90 1731 – 1735 . ( doi:10.1073/pnas.90.5.1731 ). Eizirik DL Kutlu B

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Paola Moreno, Bernardo Nuche-Berenguer, Irene Gutiérrez-Rojas, Alicia Acitores, Verónica Sancho, Isabel Valverde, Nieves González, and María L Villanueva-Peñacarrillo

present, little is known about the effect of a sustained action of GLP-1 on the glucose metabolism in the main tissues participating in the hexose homeostasis in the IR state, similar to that of Ex-4 in the same situation of altered insulin secretion and

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Laura de Miguel-Santos, Elisa Fernández-Millán, María Ángeles Martín, Fernando Escrivá, and Carmen Álvarez

maternal undernutrition, pregnant rats exhibit impaired insulin secretion in vivo and glucose intolerance at the end of the gestation ( Alvarez et al . 1997 ). This disturbance of maternal glucose homeostasis, similar to that reported in mild diabetic

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M Blandino-Rosano, G Perez-Arana, J M Mellado-Gil, C Segundo, and M Aguilar-Diosdado

tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inhibit the glucose-induced insulin secretion and play an important role in β-cell damage ( Andersen et al . 1994 , Maedler et al . 2002 ). β-cell homeostasis appears to be a balance between death and regeneration such

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Katherine A Robinson, Jonathan W Brock, and Maria G Buse

2000 Isolation of INS-1-derived cell lines with robust ATP-sensitive K + channel-dependent and -independent glucose-stimulated insulin secretion . Diabetes 49 424 – 430 . ( doi:10.2337/diabetes.49.3.424 ). Hui ST Andres AM Miller AK Spann

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Endong Zhu, Juanjuan Zhang, Jie Zhou, Hairui Yuan, Wei Zhao, and Baoli Wang

( Banerjee et al . 2003 ). Overexpressing KLF7 decreases the differentiation of the human preadipocyte and inhibits glucose-induced insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cell line ( Kawamura et al . 2006 ). Sue and coworkers reported that (I) the mRNA level of