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Jinghua Peng and Ling He

). Inactivation of IRS2 in mice results in the development of diabetes due to insulin resistance and decreases insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells ( Tamemoto et al . 1994 , Kido et al . 2000 ). Since defective hepatic insulin sensitivity in type 2

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Custodia García-Jiménez, Jose Manuel García-Martínez, Ana Chocarro-Calvo, and Antonio De la Vieja

), both of which may induce secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and hormonal disorders, such as increased insulin secretion, and therefore both lead to increased proliferation and mutations. The effects of hyperglycemia are detailed in Fig. 3 . For

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Paola Moreno, Bernardo Nuche-Berenguer, Irene Gutiérrez-Rojas, Alicia Acitores, Verónica Sancho, Isabel Valverde, Nieves González, and María L Villanueva-Peñacarrillo

present, little is known about the effect of a sustained action of GLP-1 on the glucose metabolism in the main tissues participating in the hexose homeostasis in the IR state, similar to that of Ex-4 in the same situation of altered insulin secretion and

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M Blandino-Rosano, G Perez-Arana, J M Mellado-Gil, C Segundo, and M Aguilar-Diosdado

tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), inhibit the glucose-induced insulin secretion and play an important role in β-cell damage ( Andersen et al . 1994 , Maedler et al . 2002 ). β-cell homeostasis appears to be a balance between death and regeneration such

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Kazuyoshi Ukena, Tomohiro Osugi, Jérôme Leprince, Hubert Vaudry, and Kazuyoshi Tsutsui

human adrenocortical cells ( Ramanjaneya et al . 2013 ). In the rat pancreas, glucose-evoked insulin secretion is reduced by perfusion of 26RFa/QRFP ( Egido et al . 2007 ). In the adipocyte cell line 3T3-L1, 26RFa/QRFP inhibits isoproterenol

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Gilberto Paz-Filho, Claudio Alberto Mastronardi, Brian J Parker, Ainy Khan, Antonio Inserra, Klaus I Matthaei, Monika Ehrhart-Bornstein, Stefan Bornstein, Ma-Li Wong, and Julio Licinio

in the same direction (Adjusted P value <0.10) of the following pathways: i) motifs corresponding to the GABP TF; ii) miR-124A; and iii) glucose regulation of insulin secretion. No pathway was significantly upregulated in the same direction. The

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A Stevens, C De Leonibus, D Hanson, A W Dowsey, A Whatmore, S Meyer, R P Donn, P Chatelain, I Banerjee, K E Cosgrove, P E Clayton, and M J Dunne

, excess insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, which manifests as profound hypoglycaemia ( De Leon & Stanley 2007 , Banerjee et al . 2013 ). CHI is the commonest cause of persistent hypoglycaemia in infancy. In contrast to other causes of

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Changxue Lu and Sheue-Yann Cheng

( Jatwa et al . 2007 ). Moreover, in rats with a high-fat diet and in a hyperthyroid state, administration of the PPARα agonist Wy14,643 restores glucose tolerance by enhancing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and relieves the effect of

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Laura de Miguel-Santos, Elisa Fernández-Millán, María Ángeles Martín, Fernando Escrivá, and Carmen Álvarez

maternal undernutrition, pregnant rats exhibit impaired insulin secretion in vivo and glucose intolerance at the end of the gestation ( Alvarez et al . 1997 ). This disturbance of maternal glucose homeostasis, similar to that reported in mild diabetic

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Giulia Cantini, Martina Trabucco, Alessandra Di Franco, Edoardo Mannucci, and Michaela Luconi

GLP-1R has been recently demonstrated in pancreatic beta-cells; in these cells, in conditions of high glucose, glucagon can stimulate insulin secretion through a specific binding to beta-cell GLP-1R ( Svendsen et al. 2018 ). As mentioned earlier