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Tingyuan Ren, Yuping Zhu, Xuejuan Xia, Yongbo Ding, Jing Guo, and Jianquan Kan

Introduction As a global disease, diabetes mellitus seriously endangers human health. It is a glucose, fat and protein metabolism disorder caused by the absolute or relative deficiency in insulin secretion (Michaelides et al . 2016

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Julie Amyot, Isma Benterki, Ghislaine Fontés, Derek K Hagman, Mourad Ferdaoussi, Tracy Teodoro, Allen Volchuk, Érik Joly, and Vincent Poitout

Introduction Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by impaired insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and peripheral insulin resistance. As the disease progresses, insulin secretion inexorably declines, presumably due to the metabolic

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Laure Nivlet, Joel Herrmann, Delia Esteban Martin, Aline Meunier, Christophe Orvain, and Gérard Gradwohl

pancreas including neurons of the parasympathetic and sympathetic system acting antagonistically on pancreatic hormone secretion ( Ahren 2000 ). Stimulation of parasympathetic neurons will promote insulin secretion, while sympathetic neurons activate

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Sheng Y Ang, Bronwyn A Evans, Daniel P Poole, Romke Bron, Jesse J DiCello, Ross A D Bathgate, Martina Kocan, Dana S Hutchinson, and Roger J Summers

suggested actions on pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion ( Burnicka-Turek et al. 2012 , Luo et al. 2015 ) and hepatic glucose production ( Lee et al. 2016 ). Furthermore, INSL5 reportedly stimulates ERK1/2 phosphorylation and promotes GLP-1 secretion

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Jung Ok Lee, Nami Kim, Hye Jeong Lee, Yong Woo Lee, Joong Kwan Kim, Hyung Ip Kim, Soo Kyung Lee, Su Jin Kim, Sun Hwa Park, and Hyeon Soo Kim

been reported that visfatin regulates insulin secretion and insulin receptor signaling ( Brown et al . 2010 ). In an effort to understand the signaling pathways involved in visfatin-mediated glucose uptake, we investigated the effects of visfatin on

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Carrie Y Y Cheng, Jessica Y S Chu, and Billy K C Chow

also been reported to cause an increase in insulin secretion ( Enk 1976 ). In both normal and obese non-diabetics groups, i.v. injection of secretin elicits an increase in insulin concentrations in the cubital vein ( Enk et al . 1976 ). In another

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Jiung-Pang Huang, Sheng-Chieh Hsu, Yaa-Jyuhn James Meir, Po-Shiuan Hsieh, Chih-Chun Chang, Kuan-Hsing Chen, Jan-Kan Chen, and Li-Man Hung

of pre–proinsulin gene transcription and insulin secretion ( Kieffer & Habener 2000 ). Moreover, cholesterol-triggered pancreatic β-cell death might directly reduce plasma insulin levels after consumption of a high-cholesterol diet ( Zhao et al

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Jiayu Jin, Xinhong Wang, Xiuling Zhi, and Dan Meng

-fold increase in DNA methylation of the CpG regions of the PGC-1α promoter, which causes reduced insulin secretion ( Ling et al. 2008 ). IL-6 , a pro-inflammatory cytokine associated with prediabetes and vascular complications in DM ( Lowe et al. 2014

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Louise K Metcalfe, Greg C Smith, and Nigel Turner

( Chitraju et al . 2017 ); in β-cells, this cycle may regulate insulin secretion ( Corkey et al . 2000 , Nolan et al . 2006 , Fex & Mulder 2008 ). Enhanced sequestration of TAG in cytosolic lipid droplets via perilipin protein action can blunt muscle IR

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Tingting Ren, Jinhan He, Hongfeng Jiang, Luxia Zu, Shenshen Pu, Xiaohui Guo, and Guoheng Xu

under hyperglycemic conditions, thereby further increasing the level of circulating FFA and insulin resistance. The biguanide, metformin, is widely used for the treatment of NIDDM. Unlike the sulfonylureas that stimulate insulin secretion