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Melisa Kurtz, Evangelina Capobianco, Nora Martinez, Sabrina Lorena Roberti, Edith Arany, and Alicia Jawerbaum

identified, is an important regulator of myocardial lipid metabolism that also contributes to the control of inflammation and oxidative stress ( Wahli & Michalik 2012 , Lee et al . 2013 , Palomer et al . 2013 ). PPARα is expressed in the fetal heart and

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Zhi Zhang, Fang Wang, Bing-jian Wang, Guang Chu, Qunan Cao, Bao-Gui Sun, and Qiu-Yan Dai

liver fibrosis caused by leptin. Recent evidence from our laboratory has indicated that adiponectin might be a natural antagonist of leptin, and further revealed that adiponectin did not alleviate the inflammation of the blood vessels, rather it reduced

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Kun Chen, Ji-Dan Zhou, Feng Zhang, Fang Zhang, Rui-Rui Zhang, Meng-Si Zhan, Xiao-Yin Tang, Bing Deng, Ming-Gang Lei, and Yuan-Zhu Xiong

studies showed that GPR120 has been shown to play an important role in various physiological processes such as lipogenesis, inflammation, adipogenesis, and glucose intolerance ( Gotoh et al . 2007 , Tanaka et al . 2008 , Oh et al . 2010 , Ichimura

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Guoqing Lei, Linxi Chen, Miao Peng, Bolin Zeng, Qiaoxi Yang, Hening Zhai, and Geyang Xu

, Blahoianu et al. 2014 ). IL-27 inhibits streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia and pancreatic islet inflammation in type 1 diabetic mice ( Fujimoto et al. 2011 ). Toll-like receptor-induced secretion of IL-27 is defective in newly diagnosed type-2

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Karen Fjeldborg, Holger J Møller, Bjørn Richelsen, and Steen B Pedersen

Introduction In obesity, there is an increased amount of macrophages in the adipose tissue (AT), which is associated with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance ( Weisberg et al . 2003 , Dandona et al . 2004 ). CD163 is a membrane

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Patrizia Morera, Loredana Basiricò, Kenji Hosoda, and Umberto Bernabucci

(e.g. endotoxins) from the gastrointestinal lumen to the blood. Endotoxins entering the blood stream may induce the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion and release of a variety of pro-inflammatory factors ( Lambert et al . 2002

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Jerzy-Roch Nofer

permanent hyperlipidemic state, which favors penetration of pro-atherogenic lipoproteins into the arterial wall and produces chronic inflammation accompanied by monocytosis promoting the recruitment of monocytes into the vessel wall. While a cholesterol

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Z Alourfi, R P Donn, A Stevens, A Berry, A McMaster, and D W Ray

immunoreactivity has also been described within sites of inflammation including those of inflammatory arthritis, colitis and psoriatic skin lesions (reviewed by ( Nishihira 1998 , Lue et al. 2002 ). A direct role for MIF in the aetiology of the inflammatory

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C Folgueira, S Barja-Fernandez, P Gonzalez-Saenz, V Pena-Leon, C Castelao, M Ruiz-Piñon, F F Casanueva, R Nogueiras, and L M Seoane

associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress ( Kim et al . 2016 ). In line with this observation, a recent study has found that inflammation correlates with decreased circulating proUGN levels female adolescents with obesity ( Di Guglielmo et al . 2017

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Melanie Sapochnik, Mariana Fuertes, and Eduardo Arzt

Introduction Cytokines perform essential roles during infection, cancer and inflammation where they regulate cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival or death ( Dranoff 2004 , Dinarello 2007 ). In particular, interleukin 6 (IL-6