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Tingting Zhang, Jinhan He, Chong Xu, Luxia Zu, Hongfeng Jiang, Shenshen Pu, Xiaohui Guo, and Guoheng Xu

Introduction Obesity and type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus) are associated with elevated levels of plasma free fatty acids (FFA), which restrict glucose utilization and induce insulin resistance ( Groop et al . 1989 , Bergman & Ader 2000 ). The

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Xiu-Lei Mo, Rui Yang, and Ya-Xiong Tao

Introduction Obesity is rapidly becoming a critical health problem in the USA, with nearly 70% of adults considered as overweight or obese compared with <25% 40 years ago ( Flegal et al . 2012 ). Obesity and associated comorbidities, such as type

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Stefania Carobbio, Barry Rosen, and Antonio Vidal-Puig

of daily energy expenditure ( Rothwell & Stock 1983 ), these results support the concept that increasing BAT mass/activity or browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) could be a safe and efficient strategy to prevent or treat obesity ( Bachman et al

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David R Clemmons

insulin inhibits IGFBP1 synthesis, the results support the conclusion that hyperinsulinemia that occurs in states of obesity and insulin resistance suppresses IGFBP1 leading to enhanced adipogenesis. Conversely, weight loss and restoration of more normal

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Jun Zhou, Qilong Wang, Ye Ding, and Ming-Hui Zou

Introduction Insulin resistance, a hallmark of obesity and fundamental cause of type 2 diabetes, is characterized by a diminished ability of insulin to regulate glucose homeostasis in insulin-sensitive organs including liver, skeletal muscle, and

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Gilberto Paz-Filho, Claudio Alberto Mastronardi, Brian J Parker, Ainy Khan, Antonio Inserra, Klaus I Matthaei, Monika Ehrhart-Bornstein, Stefan Bornstein, Ma-Li Wong, and Julio Licinio

Introduction The prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance (IR) is increasing worldwide: over 78 million Americans are obese, and one-third have high IR ( Yanovski & Yanovski 2011 ). These factors have impacted the prevalence of non

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Rebecca Roy, Caitlyn Nguyen-Ngo, and Martha Lappas

child such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease ( Reece 2010 , Damm et al. 2016 ). To date, interventions have failed to effectively reduce the burden of disease ( Agha-Jaffar et al. 2016 ). Treatment of GDM

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Suwattanee Kooptiwut, Melkam Kebede, Sakeneh Zraika, Sherley Visinoni, Kathryn Aston-Mourney, Jenny Favaloro, Chris Tikellis, Merlin C Thomas, Josephine M Forbes, Mark E Cooper, Marjorie Dunlop, Joseph Proietto, and Sofianos Andrikopoulos

small portion of the DBA/2 genome ( Naggert et al. 1995 ), have a genetic predisposition to pancreatic islet failure. Islet function is grossly impaired in DBA/2 and C57BL/KsJ mice expressing the db/db gene (which results in obesity and insulin

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Cristina L Esteves, Val Kelly, Valérie Bégay, Simon G Lillico, Achim Leutz, Jonathan R Seckl, and Karen E Chapman

obesity-related disorders. However, introduction of nucleic acids and, consequently, the manipulation of genes in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes are difficult to achieve. pSLIK plasmids, encoding a tetracycline-regulated transcriptional unit in a

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Gabriela Silva Monteiro de Paula, Marianna Wilieman, Karina Ribeiro Silva, Leandra Santos Baptista, Sihem Boudina, Luana Lopes de Souza, Thais Bento-Bernardes, Karina Dutra Asensi, Regina Coeli dos Santos Goldenberg, and Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura

-like receptors have been implicated in the regulation of the energy homeostasis, as suggested by studies in animals with genetically disrupted receptors. BRS3-knockout mice are obese, have insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia and impaired glucose metabolism ( Ohki