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Edward T Bagu and Manuela M Santos

. 2010 ). Increases in the concentration of iron and inflammation upregulate the transcription of hepcidin, while iron deficiency and hypoxia downregulate it ( Nicolas et al . 2002 ). At present, it is unclear as to what the molecular mechanisms involved

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Xinwang Chen, Xiao Jia, Jie Qiao, Youfei Guan, and Jihong Kang

, and IL1β, are best known for their association with inflammation and have been reviewed in detail elsewhere ( Bohler et al . 2010 ). Leptin Named from the Greek leptos (meaning thin), leptin is a 167-amino acid protein encoded by the ob gene. It

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Michelle Mohyi and Terry J Smith

serious consideration. Figure 1 Facial portrait of a patient with relatively mild, asymmetric thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. The patient manifests bilateral upper eyelid retraction, periorbital swelling and mild conjunctival inflammation

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Bo Zhou, Huixia Li, Jiali Liu, Lin Xu, Qinyue Guo, Hongzhi Sun, and Shufang Wu

-deficient mice exhibited resistance to diet-induced obesity and insulin insensitivity through the modulation of inflammation, whereas adipocytes exposed to PGRN have increased susceptibility to be insulin-resistant and those effects can be normalized with

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Yuumi Ishizuka, Kazuhiro Nakayama, Ayumi Ogawa, Saho Makishima, Supichaya Boonvisut, Atsushi Hirao, Yusaku Iwasaki, Toshihiko Yada, Yoshiko Yanagisawa, Hiroshi Miyashita, Masafumi Takahashi, Sadahiko Iwamoto, and Jichi Medical University Promotion Team of a Large-Scale Human Genome Bank for All over Japan

have resulted in the remarkably increased plasma AST level of TRIB1 overexpression ( Table 1 ). The relatively mild AST increase in mice with TRIB1 knockdown and those injected with the LacZ vector might have resulted from inflammation induced by

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Jun Zhou, Qilong Wang, Ye Ding, and Ming-Hui Zou

adipose tissue. Insulin resistance is partly caused by chronic low-level inflammation and oxidative stress in adipose tissue ( Guo 2014 ). Infiltration of inflammatory cells, which produce cytokines and oxidants, leads to a local inflammatory environment

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S Dubois, A M Madec, A Mesnier, M Armanet, K Chikh, T Berney, and Ch Thivolet

and proteins were extracted, except for HUVECs where only RNA was extracted. Real-time PCR and/or protein arrays evaluated markers involved in inflammation, and angiogenesis was performed. Media from pancreatic islet cultures were kept frozen and

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Yousheng Xu, Yongshun Wang, Jingjin Liu, Wei Cao, Lili Li, Hongwei Du, Enbo Zhan, Ruoxi Zhang, Huimin Liu, Maoen Xu, Tao Chen, Yilin Qu, and Bo Yu

, cardiomyopathy, exhibiting as cardiac structural remodeling and dysfunction in terms of abnormal energy metabolism, myocardial inflammation and impaired left ventricular contractility, leads to unhealthy outcome in obese patients ( Alpert et al. 2014

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Kent Wehmeier, Luisa M Onstead-Haas, Norman C W Wong, Arshag D Mooradian, and Michael J Haas

decreased insulin action in skeletal muscle and liver in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies ( Kim et al. 2004 ), IL-6-deficient mice displayed hyperleptinemia and hyperinsulinemia, liver inflammation, and steatohepatitis ( Wallenius et al. 2002

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Melisa Kurtz, Evangelina Capobianco, Nora Martinez, Sabrina Lorena Roberti, Edith Arany, and Alicia Jawerbaum

identified, is an important regulator of myocardial lipid metabolism that also contributes to the control of inflammation and oxidative stress ( Wahli & Michalik 2012 , Lee et al . 2013 , Palomer et al . 2013 ). PPARα is expressed in the fetal heart and