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Michelle Mohyi and Terry J Smith

serious consideration. Figure 1 Facial portrait of a patient with relatively mild, asymmetric thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. The patient manifests bilateral upper eyelid retraction, periorbital swelling and mild conjunctival inflammation

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Jun Zhou, Qilong Wang, Ye Ding, and Ming-Hui Zou

adipose tissue. Insulin resistance is partly caused by chronic low-level inflammation and oxidative stress in adipose tissue ( Guo 2014 ). Infiltration of inflammatory cells, which produce cytokines and oxidants, leads to a local inflammatory environment

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Bo Zhou, Huixia Li, Jiali Liu, Lin Xu, Qinyue Guo, Hongzhi Sun, and Shufang Wu

-deficient mice exhibited resistance to diet-induced obesity and insulin insensitivity through the modulation of inflammation, whereas adipocytes exposed to PGRN have increased susceptibility to be insulin-resistant and those effects can be normalized with

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Yuumi Ishizuka, Kazuhiro Nakayama, Ayumi Ogawa, Saho Makishima, Supichaya Boonvisut, Atsushi Hirao, Yusaku Iwasaki, Toshihiko Yada, Yoshiko Yanagisawa, Hiroshi Miyashita, Masafumi Takahashi, Sadahiko Iwamoto, and Jichi Medical University Promotion Team of a Large-Scale Human Genome Bank for All over Japan

have resulted in the remarkably increased plasma AST level of TRIB1 overexpression ( Table 1 ). The relatively mild AST increase in mice with TRIB1 knockdown and those injected with the LacZ vector might have resulted from inflammation induced by

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S Dubois, A M Madec, A Mesnier, M Armanet, K Chikh, T Berney, and Ch Thivolet

and proteins were extracted, except for HUVECs where only RNA was extracted. Real-time PCR and/or protein arrays evaluated markers involved in inflammation, and angiogenesis was performed. Media from pancreatic islet cultures were kept frozen and

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Yousheng Xu, Yongshun Wang, Jingjin Liu, Wei Cao, Lili Li, Hongwei Du, Enbo Zhan, Ruoxi Zhang, Huimin Liu, Maoen Xu, Tao Chen, Yilin Qu, and Bo Yu

, cardiomyopathy, exhibiting as cardiac structural remodeling and dysfunction in terms of abnormal energy metabolism, myocardial inflammation and impaired left ventricular contractility, leads to unhealthy outcome in obese patients ( Alpert et al. 2014

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Melisa Kurtz, Evangelina Capobianco, Nora Martinez, Sabrina Lorena Roberti, Edith Arany, and Alicia Jawerbaum

identified, is an important regulator of myocardial lipid metabolism that also contributes to the control of inflammation and oxidative stress ( Wahli & Michalik 2012 , Lee et al . 2013 , Palomer et al . 2013 ). PPARα is expressed in the fetal heart and

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Dawn X Zhang and Christopher K Glass

immunity and normal homeostatic processes, macrophages are essential to the body's ability to control inflammation. Consequently, these immune cells have been implicated in multiple disease processes such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple

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C Folgueira, S Barja-Fernandez, P Gonzalez-Saenz, V Pena-Leon, C Castelao, M Ruiz-Piñon, F F Casanueva, R Nogueiras, and L M Seoane

associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress ( Kim et al . 2016 ). In line with this observation, a recent study has found that inflammation correlates with decreased circulating proUGN levels female adolescents with obesity ( Di Guglielmo et al . 2017

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Kun Chen, Ji-Dan Zhou, Feng Zhang, Fang Zhang, Rui-Rui Zhang, Meng-Si Zhan, Xiao-Yin Tang, Bing Deng, Ming-Gang Lei, and Yuan-Zhu Xiong

studies showed that GPR120 has been shown to play an important role in various physiological processes such as lipogenesis, inflammation, adipogenesis, and glucose intolerance ( Gotoh et al . 2007 , Tanaka et al . 2008 , Oh et al . 2010 , Ichimura