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Loes P M Duivenvoorde, Evert M van Schothorst, Annelies Bunschoten, and Jaap Keijer

Introduction Obesity is a major health concern that affects millions of people worldwide ( Kopelman 2000 , Ogden et al . 2010 ). Although white adipose tissue (WAT) plays an important role in mammalian energy homeostasis by preventing lipotoxicity

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Jiung-Pang Huang, Sheng-Chieh Hsu, Yaa-Jyuhn James Meir, Po-Shiuan Hsieh, Chih-Chun Chang, Kuan-Hsing Chen, Jan-Kan Chen, and Li-Man Hung

Introduction Obesity is associated with several complications, including diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD) ( Malnick & Knobler 2006 , Poirier et al . 2006 , Nguyen & El-Serag 2010 ). Chronic low-grade inflammation and

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Jaume Folch, Ignacio Pedrós, Iván Patraca, Francesc Sureda, Fèlix Junyent, Carlos Beas-Zarate, Ester Verdaguer, Mercè Pallàs, Carme Auladell, and Antoni Camins

targets regulated by Lep such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which is a neurotrophin also involved in hypothalamic food intake regulation and represents a potential target for developing new anti-obesity therapies. Furthermore, cytokines such

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R Buettner, K G Parhofer, M Woenckhaus, C E Wrede, L A Kunz-Schughart, J Schölmerich, and L C Bollheimer

Introduction The coincidence of obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia is commonly referred to as the ‘metabolic syndrome’. This condition affects approximately 20–40% of the population in the industrialized

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Ying Zhang, Mingtong Xu, Shaoling Zhang, Li Yan, Chuan Yang, Wensheng Lu, Yan Li, and Hua Cheng

Introduction Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is tightly linked to obesity, which is characterized by hyperlipidemia and elevated circulating free fatty acids (FFAs; Kashyap et al. 2003 , Moller & Kaufman 2005 ). Long-chain FFAs have

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Giulia Cantini, Martina Trabucco, Alessandra Di Franco, Edoardo Mannucci, and Michaela Luconi

Introduction Obesity is one of the most critical risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D); in fact, about 90% of persons with diabetes is obese or overweight ( Pappachan et al. 2017 ). This led to the use of the term

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Lena Espelage, Hadi Al-Hasani, and Alexandra Chadt

1 have been linked to obesity-related traits in humans ( Stone et al. 2006 , Meyre et al. 2008 ) and mice ( Chadt et al. 2008 ). Moreover, TBC1D1’s role in beta-cell function may also influence fasting glucose homeostasis. Glucose

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Maria Cernea, Wei Tang, Haiyan Guan, and Kaiping Yang

Introduction Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally and is a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability ( Dixon 2010 , WHO 2015 ). These obesity-associated co-morbidities include insulin resistance, type-2

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Carolina Gustavsson, Tomoyoshi Soga, Erik Wahlström, Mattias Vesterlund, Alireza Azimi, Gunnar Norstedt, and Petra Tollet-Egnell

by muscle ( D'Eon et al . 2005 ) and reduce central adiposity ( Perrone et al . 1999 ). Both abdominal visceral obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are closely associated with metabolic disorders and are more common in men ( Cheung

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Iwona J Bujalska, Nicole Draper, Zoi Michailidou, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Perrin C White, Karen E Chapman, Elizabeth A Walker, and Paul M Stewart

ocular tissues ( Rauz et al. 2001 ), this enzyme may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity, metabolic syndrome/diabetes mellitus, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and glaucoma. In liver for example, 11β-HSD1-mediated oxo-reductase activity