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Jie Sun, Yan Liu, Jinhui Yu, Jin Wu, Wenting Gao, Liyuan Ran, Rujiao Jiang, Meihua Guo, Dongyu Han, Bo Liu, Ning Wang, Youwei Li, He Huang, Li Zeng, Ying Gao, Xin Li, and Yingjie Wu

facilitates the development of fatty liver ( Malhi & Kaufman 2011 ), inflammation ( Cao et al. 2016 ), apoptosis, autophagy disorder ( Li et al. 2015 ) and IR. Therefore, amelioration of ER stress stands as a crucial point to avert IR. In the 6-week

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Stacey N Walters, Jude Luzuriaga, Jeng Yie Chan, Shane T Grey, and D Ross Laybutt

antioxidant and pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA in islet grafts Oxidative stress and inflammation have been implicated in β-cell failure in diabetes ( Laybutt et al . 2002 , Poitout & Robertson 2008 , Donath & Shoelson 2011 , Gregor & Hotamisligil 2011

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Nikoletta G Papadopoulou, Lauren Oleson, Duraisamy Kempuraj, Jill Donelan, Curtis L Cetrulo, and Theoharis C Theoharides

CRH ( Esposito et al. 2002 ). Such findings have implicated stress and mast cells in brain inflammation, including multiple sclerosis ( Goodin et al. 1999 , Mei-Tal et al. 1970 , Theoharides & Cochrane 2004 ), but did not prove that CRH had a

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Gábor Bánhegyi, Miklós Csala, and Angelo Benedetti

the accumulation of immature proteins and triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) that finally leads to a variety of downstream effects, such as apoptosis, inflammation, and insulin resistance ( Hotamisligil 2005 , Yoshida 2007 , Zhang & Kaufman

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Gillian A Gray, Christopher I White, Raphael F P Castellan, Sara J McSweeney, and Karen E Chapman

/macrophages and neutrophils regulates their recruitment to sites of inflammation ( Tiganescu et al. 2011 ), phagocytic potential ( Speirs et al. 2004 ) and the release of pro-inflammatory molecules ( Zhang & Daynes 2007 ). 11β-HSD1 inhibition may therefore be

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Andrew Whittle

certainly supported by functional data from humans ( McQuaid et al . 2011 ). These non-adipose tissues are poorly adapted for fat storage and as such succumb to lipotoxic effects that lead to increased insulin resistance, inflammation and apoptosis ( Virtue

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Lichun Zhou, Baohua Ma, and Xiuzhen Han

) Cardiac hypertrophy LC-3 II/I ratio and mitophagy decreased Macrophages from wild-type C57BL/6J or Atg5 +/− mice 1 μmol/L Ang II (48 h) Atg5 deficiency-mediated mitophagy aggravates cardiac inflammation and injury Zhao et al . (2014

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Ahter D Sanlioglu, Bahri Karacay, Mustafa Kemal Balci, Thomas S Griffith, and Salih Sanlioglu

Obesity and inflammation Diabetes is the third most common disease and fourth leading cause of death in the world ( Tabak et al . 2012 ). Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and excessive glucagon secretion are the prominent features of

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Edward T Bagu and Manuela M Santos

. 2010 ). Increases in the concentration of iron and inflammation upregulate the transcription of hepcidin, while iron deficiency and hypoxia downregulate it ( Nicolas et al . 2002 ). At present, it is unclear as to what the molecular mechanisms involved

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Xinwang Chen, Xiao Jia, Jie Qiao, Youfei Guan, and Jihong Kang

, and IL1β, are best known for their association with inflammation and have been reviewed in detail elsewhere ( Bohler et al . 2010 ). Leptin Named from the Greek leptos (meaning thin), leptin is a 167-amino acid protein encoded by the ob gene. It