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C Bolduc, M Larose, M Yoshioka, P Ye, P Belleau, C Labrie, J Morissette, V Raymond, F Labrie, and J St-Amand

Introduction Obesity is a growing epidemic in many countries, especially in sedentary populations ( Seidell 2000 ). Important health disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and cancer ( Bray

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Hui Juan Zhu, Hui Pan, Xu Zhe Zhang, Nai Shi Li, Lin Jie Wang, Hong Bo Yang, and Feng Ying Gong

Introduction Obesity is characterized by an imbalance between the intake and expenditure of energy, which results in excess energy taking the form of fat in the body. Adipose tissue mass reflects the number and average volume of adipocytes, in

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M W A de Backer, M A D Brans, A J van Rozen, E M van der Zwaal, M C M Luijendijk, K G Garner, M de Krom, O van Beekum, S E la Fleur, and R A H Adan

Introduction Obesity has been associated with leptin resistance in both humans and rodents. Although leptin normally reduces food intake, obese humans and rodents still overconsume calories despite increased leptin levels ( Frederich et al . 1995

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Guoqing Lei, Linxi Chen, Miao Peng, Bolin Zeng, Qiaoxi Yang, Hening Zhai, and Geyang Xu

-resistant obese patients and subsequent development of type 2 diabetes ( Tuduri et al. 2016 ). Current incretin therapies include incretin mimetics (i.e. GLP-1 receptor agonists) and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV or CD26) (incretin enhancers), an

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Lucia Kořínková, Martina Holubová, Barbora Neprašová, Lucie Hrubá, Veronika Pražienková, Michal Bencze, Martin Haluzík, Jaroslav Kuneš, Lenka Maletínská, and Blanka Železná

-localization of PrRP and leptin receptor was questioned in the brainstem ( Garfield et al . 2012 ). The combined central administration of leptin and PrRP had an additive anorexigenic effect on nocturnal food intake in freely fed rats. Moreover, in obese Zucker

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N Hoggard, S Bashir, M Cruickshank, J D B Miller, and J R Speakman

-3 receptor are obese ( Ohki-Hamazaki et al. 1997 , Ladenheim et al. 2002 ). However, mice lacking the NMB receptor are not obese, but there is an effect on the serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine(HT)) system which is linked to food intake ( Yamano

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I K Lund, J A Hansen, H S Andersen, N P H Møller, and N Billestrup

Introduction Leptin, the 16 kDa protein product of the obese gene ( Zhang et al. 1994 ), is an adipocyte-derived hormone, secreted in proportion to the total body fat mass ( Banks 2003 ). The primary site of leptin action is the

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He Jiang, Xiao-Ping Ye, Zhong-Yin Yang, Ming Zhan, Hai-Ning Wang, Huang-Min Cao, Hui-Jun Xie, Chun-Ming Pan, Huai-Dong Song, and Shuang-Xia Zhao

focus to the crucial role of excess Ald in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events and metabolic syndrome (MS) ( Fallo et al . 2006 ). It is well known that obesity is frequently accompanied by increased plasma Ald levels, which are correlated with

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N Hoggard, D V Rayner, S L Johnston, and J R Speakman

intake and body weight ( Rossi et al. 1998 , Barsh 1999 ). Conversely, single central injections of the MC4R antagonists, AgRP, SHU9119 or HS014, stimulate food intake in rodents, and chronic CNS administration leads to obesity ( Fan et al. 1997

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Karen Fjeldborg, Holger J Møller, Bjørn Richelsen, and Steen B Pedersen

Introduction In obesity, there is an increased amount of macrophages in the adipose tissue (AT), which is associated with low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance ( Weisberg et al . 2003 , Dandona et al . 2004 ). CD163 is a membrane