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Afreen Idris Shariff, Sohail Syed, Rebecca A Shelby, Jeremy Force, Jeffrey Melson Clarke, David D’Alessio, and Leonor Corsino

adipose tissue, CST increases the breakdown of lipids by inducing lipolysis and raising local accumulation of non-sterified fatty acids, a mechanism that has been associated with greater increasing insulin resistance ( Perez et al. 2014 ). Apart from

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Davids Fridmanis, Ramona Petrovska, Dace Pjanova, Helgi B Schiöth, and Janis Klovins

, Kovalitskaia et al . 2008 ). In the adrenal cortex, MC2R affects glucocorticoid production ( Clark & Cammas 1996 ) and synthesis of its own mRNA ( Naville et al . 1999 ). Research with mouse adipocytes has shown that MC2R participates in lipolysis ( Boston

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Yanjun Liu, Yuichi Nakagawa, Ying Wang, Limei Liu, Hongwei Du, Wei Wang, Xiuhai Ren, Kabirullah Lutfy, and Theodore C Friedman

adipose tissue and decreases lipolysis . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 92 857 – 864 . Walker BR Connacher AA Lindsay RM Webb DJ Edwards CR 1995 Carbenoxolone increases hepatic insulin sensitivity in man: a novel role for 11

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Rebecca Roy, Caitlyn Nguyen-Ngo, and Martha Lappas

force in term pregnant rat myometrium . Journal of Physiology 593 4603 – 4614 . ( https://doi.org/10.1113/JP270631 ) Heimann E Nyman M Degerman E 2015 Propionic acid and butyric acid inhibit lipolysis and de novo lipogenesis and increase

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Eva Tudurí, Monica Imbernon, Rene Javier Hernández-Bautista, Marta Tojo, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez, and Rubén Nogueiras

-Hyiaman et al . 2008 ). In addition, activation of CB1 increases lipogenesis and inflammation and reduces lipolysis, in the white adipose tissue (WAT) ( Silvestri & Di Marzo 2013 ). Furthermore, CB1 activation impairs insulin sensitivity, as evidenced by

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Ting Qi, Yanming Chen, Honggui Li, Ya Pei, Shih-Lung Woo, Xin Guo, Jiajia Zhao, Xiaoxian Qian, Joseph Awika, Yuqing Huo, and Chaodong Wu

and resveratrol ameliorate muscle insulin resistance through preventing lipolysis and inflammation in hypoxic adipose tissue . Cell Signal 28 1401 – 1411 . ( doi:10.1016/j.cellsig.2016.06.018 ) Zheng J Woo S-L Hu X Botchlett R

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Changxue Lu and Sheue-Yann Cheng

H-mutated TRα1 manifest visceral obesity, hyperleptinemia, reduced catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in WAT, and hepatic steatosis ( Liu et al . 2007 ). In the absence of T 3 , wild-type TRα1 and P398H mutant significantly reduce PPARα

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Ana Luísa Neves, João Coelho, Luciana Couto, Adelino Leite-Moreira, and Roberto Roncon-Albuquerque Jr

of triglyceride, hepatic de novo fatty acid synthesis, and lipolysis. High doses of LPS produce hypertriglyceridemia by decreasing lipoprotein catabolism. Administration of TNF antibodies or IL1 receptor antagonist did not prevent the increase in

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Bo Zhou, Huixia Li, Jiali Liu, Lin Xu, Qinyue Guo, Hongzhi Sun, and Shufang Wu

476 – 491 . ( doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.08.047 ). Stralfors P Honnor RC 1989 Insulin-induced dephosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase: correlation with lipolysis and cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity . European Journal of Biochemistry

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Elisa Manieri and Guadalupe Sabio

secretion of adipokines ( Gavrilova et al . 2000 ). In the obese state, adipocyte enlargement induces molecular and cellular alterations that affect whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Increased lipolysis in adipocytes leads to increased hyperlipidaemia and