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Jin-Seung Choung, Young-Sun Lee, and Hee-Sook Jun

lipolysis and free fatty acid utilization, contributing to the activation of UCP-1. β 3 -adrenergic receptors are thought to play a role in thermogenesis in brown fat and skeletal muscle, induce adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis and stimulate UCP1

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Davids Fridmanis, Ramona Petrovska, Dace Pjanova, Helgi B Schiöth, and Janis Klovins

, Kovalitskaia et al . 2008 ). In the adrenal cortex, MC2R affects glucocorticoid production ( Clark & Cammas 1996 ) and synthesis of its own mRNA ( Naville et al . 1999 ). Research with mouse adipocytes has shown that MC2R participates in lipolysis ( Boston

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Afreen Idris Shariff, Sohail Syed, Rebecca A Shelby, Jeremy Force, Jeffrey Melson Clarke, David D’Alessio, and Leonor Corsino

adipose tissue, CST increases the breakdown of lipids by inducing lipolysis and raising local accumulation of non-sterified fatty acids, a mechanism that has been associated with greater increasing insulin resistance ( Perez et al. 2014 ). Apart from

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L J Moran, P A Mundra, H J Teede, and P J Meikle

metabolic effects including suppression of lipogenesis and enhancement of lipolysis ( Shirouchi et al . 2007 ). Elevated lysophosphatidylcholine may indicate an increase in phospholipase activity which is highly expressed in the atherogenic plaque and

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Changxue Lu and Sheue-Yann Cheng

H-mutated TRα1 manifest visceral obesity, hyperleptinemia, reduced catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis in WAT, and hepatic steatosis ( Liu et al . 2007 ). In the absence of T 3 , wild-type TRα1 and P398H mutant significantly reduce PPARα

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Pierre Poinsot, Martin Schwarzer, Noël Peretti, and François Leulier

actions or lipolysis ( Bergan-Roller & Sheridan 2017 ). Anabolic actions of GH in juvenile growth act by well-known mechanism associated with positive nitrogen balance, protein synthesis in muscle and stimulation of the longitudinal bone growth ( Chikani

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Eva Tudurí, Monica Imbernon, Rene Javier Hernández-Bautista, Marta Tojo, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez, and Rubén Nogueiras

-Hyiaman et al . 2008 ). In addition, activation of CB1 increases lipogenesis and inflammation and reduces lipolysis, in the white adipose tissue (WAT) ( Silvestri & Di Marzo 2013 ). Furthermore, CB1 activation impairs insulin sensitivity, as evidenced by

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Qi Zhang, Qin Zhu, Ruyuan Deng, Feiye Zhou, Linlin Zhang, Shushu Wang, Kecheng Zhu, Xiao Wang, Libin Zhou, and Qing Su

reticulum-tethered transcription factor cAMP responsive element-binding protein, hepatocyte specific, regulates hepatic lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and lipolysis upon metabolic stress in mice . Hepatology 55 1070 – 1082 . ( https://doi.org/10

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Johan Svensson, Sofia Movérare-Skrtic, Sara Windahl, Charlotte Swanson, and Klara Sjögren

some or all of the lipolysis that is independent of hormone-sensitive lipase ( Soni et al . 2004 ), was up-regulated in muscle by E 2 , indicating increased utilization of free fatty acids as fuel. Synaptic transmission DHT up-regulated several genes

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Yanjun Liu, Yuichi Nakagawa, Ying Wang, Limei Liu, Hongwei Du, Wei Wang, Xiuhai Ren, Kabirullah Lutfy, and Theodore C Friedman

adipose tissue and decreases lipolysis . Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 92 857 – 864 . Walker BR Connacher AA Lindsay RM Webb DJ Edwards CR 1995 Carbenoxolone increases hepatic insulin sensitivity in man: a novel role for 11