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A Stevens, C De Leonibus, D Hanson, A W Dowsey, A Whatmore, S Meyer, R P Donn, P Chatelain, I Banerjee, K E Cosgrove, P E Clayton, and M J Dunne

used to investigate the metabolic regulation of adipocytes in obesity in order to further understand the cascade of events progressing from adipocyte expansion to immune cell recruitment and initiation of inflammation ( Kamei et al . 2006 ). Lipidomics

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Ping Jiang, Jinwen Xu, Shuhui Zheng, Jinghe Huang, Qiuling Xiang, Xiaodong Fu, and Tinghuai Wang

the atherosclerotic lesions ( Laman et al . 2002 , Liu et al . 2006 ). Among these etiological factors, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer-membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, is the most important one responsible for vascular inflammation

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Limin Tian, Luyan Zhang, Jing Liu, Tiankang Guo, Cuixia Gao, and Jing Ni

accelerate AS. The central events of AS include endothelial dysfunction ( Atochin & Huang 2010 ), inflammation, and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) proliferation. It is worth noting that endothelial cell dysfunction is generally accepted as an early step

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Eva Tudurí, Monica Imbernon, Rene Javier Hernández-Bautista, Marta Tojo, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez, and Rubén Nogueiras

-Hyiaman et al . 2008 ). In addition, activation of CB1 increases lipogenesis and inflammation and reduces lipolysis, in the white adipose tissue (WAT) ( Silvestri & Di Marzo 2013 ). Furthermore, CB1 activation impairs insulin sensitivity, as evidenced by

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Ilaria Cimmino, Francesco Oriente, Vittoria D’Esposito, Domenico Liguoro, Pasquale Liguoro, Maria Rosaria Ambrosio, Serena Cabaro, Francesco D’Andrea, Francesco Beguinot, Pietro Formisano, and Rossella Valentino

inflammation in mature mammary adipocytes and in SVF cells. Mature adipocytes (A) and SVF cells (B), isolated from mammary adipose tissue biopsies ( n  = 6), were grown in suspension and treated with 0.1 nM BPA for 24 h and 48 h. IL-8, MCP1α and IL-6 mRNA

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Rachel Njeim, William S Azar, Angie H Fares, Sami T Azar, Hala Kfoury Kassouf, and Assaad A Eid

pathogens, such as bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses ( Rosales et al. 2017 ). Upon infection or inflammation, PMNs are the first leukocytes to migrate from the blood to injured or infected sites where they phagocytose invading microorganisms in order

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Man Huang, Duraisamy Kempuraj, Nikoletta Papadopoulou, Taxiarchis Kourelis, Jill Donelan, Akrivi Manola, and Theoharis C Theoharides

higher in apolipoprotein E (Apo E) knockout mice that develop atherosclerosis ( Huang et al . 2003 ). Local inflammation is now recognized as a key component of coronary artery disease (CAD; Packard & Libby 2008 ). The proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 is

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Sufang Chen, Wei Wei, Minjie Chen, Xiaobo Qin, Lianglin Qiu, Li Zhang, Yuhao Zhang, Qi Cao, and Zhekang Ying

Introduction With a focused effort of more than two decades, it has been well established that inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus ( Hotamisligil 2017 ). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) is one

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Penny Ahlstrom, Esther Rai, Suharto Chakma, Hee Ho Cho, Palanivel Rengasamy, and Gary Sweeney

, there is now a strong body of evidence, which clearly indicates that various factors can elevate ER stress in skeletal muscle leading to insulin resistance. For example, inflammation or high-fat diet can lead to ER stress ( Dai et al. 2016 , Kwak et

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Jie Sun, Yan Liu, Jinhui Yu, Jin Wu, Wenting Gao, Liyuan Ran, Rujiao Jiang, Meihua Guo, Dongyu Han, Bo Liu, Ning Wang, Youwei Li, He Huang, Li Zeng, Ying Gao, Xin Li, and Yingjie Wu

facilitates the development of fatty liver ( Malhi & Kaufman 2011 ), inflammation ( Cao et al. 2016 ), apoptosis, autophagy disorder ( Li et al. 2015 ) and IR. Therefore, amelioration of ER stress stands as a crucial point to avert IR. In the 6-week