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Xinxin Xiang, Wenjiao An, Changtao Jiang, Jing Zhao, Xian Wang, Guang Sun, Yin Li, and Weizhen Zhang

Introduction Inflammation in adipose tissue is intimately linked with the onset and progression of insulin resistance. The link between insulin resistance and obesity is not completely understood. Recent studies suggest that insulin sensitivity is

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Daniela Nasteska and David J Hodson

downregulated/desensitised during obesity/T2DM ( Lynn et al . 2001 , Meier & Nauck 2010 ), stabilised variants of GLP-1 have served as a template for production of incretin mimetics. For an in-depth review of stimulus–secretion coupling in the beta cell, the

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Carla Caruso, Lila Carniglia, Daniela Durand, Teresa N Scimonelli, and Mercedes Lasaga

ischemia in mice ( Berthet et al . 2009 ). Fatty acids can also be processed as energy substrates. High levels of fatty acids are found in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and high-fat diet (HFD), and it is known that fatty acids can cross the blood

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Mohamed H Noureldein, Sara Bitar, Natalie Youssef, Sami Azar, and Assaad A Eid

conflicting findings, all of these studies were able to identify a different flora signature for T1DM, T2DM and obesity ( Mejía-León & Barca 2015 , Navab-Moghadam et al. 2017 ). However, the published findings further confirm the role for microbiota in the

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Shaoqian Zhao, Wen Liu, Jiqiu Wang, Juan Shi, Yingkai Sun, Weiqing Wang, Guang Ning, Ruixin Liu, and Jie Hong

Introduction Metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have increasing prevalence worldwide because of the sedentary lifestyles and easy access to energy-rich food ( Hossain et al . 2007 ). Abundant evidence shows that the

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Diana Vargas, Noriaki Shimokawa, Ryosuke Kaneko, Wendy Rosales, Adriana Parra, Ángela Castellanos, Noriyuki Koibuchi, and Fernando Lizcano

Introduction Obesity and its associated metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, are increasing in prevalence due to a combination of environmental factors and genetic variations ( van Dijk et

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Tae Woo Jung, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Yong Kyoo Shin, Hyeyoung Min, Seong-Wan Cho, Zi Soo Kim, Su Mi Han, A M Abd El-Aty, Ahmet Hacımüftüoğlu, and Ji Hoon Jeong

the treatment of obesity have revealed that WAT can demonstrate BAT-like phenotypes under certain external factors. Various pharmacological and dietary compounds have been suggested to increase energy expenditure and prevent lipid accumulation in

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Susan M van den Berg, Andrea D van Dam, Pascal J H Kusters, Linda Beckers, Myrthe den Toom, Saskia van der Velden, Jan Van den Bossche, Irma van Die, Mariëtte R Boon, Patrick C N Rensen, Esther Lutgens, and Menno P J de Winther

such as BAT ( Saito et al . 2009 ). Interestingly, [18F]FDG uptake by BAT is negatively correlated with BMI, suggestive of decreased BAT activity in obesity ( Saito et al . 2009 ), at least with respect to glucose metabolism. Moreover, activation of

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Jason F Ohlstein, Amy L Strong, John A McLachlan, Jeffrey M Gimble, Matthew E Burow, and Bruce A Bunnell

( Biedermann et al . 2010 , Liao & Kannan 2011 , Liao et al . 2012 ), and some dental sealants ( Maserejian et al . 2014 ). BPA exposure has been linked to a wide range of negative health effects, including an increased risk of miscarriages, obesity, and

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Soumyadeep Dey, Xiaoxia Li, Ruifeng Teng, Mawadda Alnaeeli, ZhiYong Chen, Heather Rogers, and Constance Tom Noguchi

anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-producing neurons ( Bouyer & Simerly 2013 ). Ablation of POMC neurons and loss of POMC-derived transmitters lead to obesity ( Yaswen et al . 1999 ), further underscoring the importance of POMC neurons in regulation of