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Susan M van den Berg, Andrea D van Dam, Pascal J H Kusters, Linda Beckers, Myrthe den Toom, Saskia van der Velden, Jan Van den Bossche, Irma van Die, Mariëtte R Boon, Patrick C N Rensen, Esther Lutgens and Menno P J de Winther

BAT by repetitive cold exposure enhances energy expenditure and lowers fat mass ( van der Lans et al . 2013 , Yoneshiro et al . 2013 ), underscoring the role of BAT in energy metabolism in humans. Brown-like or ‘beige/brite’ adipocytes can also be

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Diana Vargas, Noriaki Shimokawa, Ryosuke Kaneko, Wendy Rosales, Adriana Parra, Ángela Castellanos, Noriyuki Koibuchi and Fernando Lizcano

the phenotypic plasticity of beige fat cells in adults has increased interest in the development of potential drugs to treat obesity and metabolic diseases ( Cannon & Nedergaard 2004 , Rosen & Spiegelman 2014 ). The origin of beige fat is unclear, but

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Jessica A Deis, Hong Guo, Yingjie Wu, Chengyu Liu, David A Bernlohr and Xiaoli Chen

.711556 ) 10.1074/jbc.M115.711556 Harms M Seale P 2013 Brown and beige fat: development, function and therapeutic potential . Nature Medicine 19 1252 – 1263 . ( ) 10.1038/nm.3361 Hernandez A de Mena RM Martin E

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Andrew Whittle

peripheral actions . Cell 149 871 – 885 . doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.02.066 . Wu J Bostrom P Sparks LM Ye L Choi JH Giang AH Khandekar M Virtanen KA Nuutila P Schaart G 2012 Beige adipocytes are a distinct type of thermogenic fat

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Charit Taneja, Sakshi Gera, Se-Min Kim, Jameel Iqbal, Tony Yuen and Mone Zaidi

energy-producing beige adipocytes ( Liu et al. 2017 ). These murine models include mature male and female mice fed pairwise or ad libitum on a high-fat diet or on normal chow, sham-operated and ovariectomized mice, 8-month-old mice, and Fshr

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Christopher E Wall, Ruth T Yu, Anne R Atkins, Michael Downes and Ronald M Evans

). Comprehensively, these studies propose the therapeutic use of PPARδ-regulated adipokines to improve systemic metabolic homeostasis. PGC1α: promoting thermogenic metabolism in brown and beige fat PPARδ is also essential for the development and function of

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Stefania Carobbio, Barry Rosen and Antonio Vidal-Puig

Bostrom P Sparks LM Ye L Choi JH Giang AH Khandekar M Virtanen KA Nuutila P Schaart G 2012 Beige adipocytes are a distinct type of thermogenic fat cell in mouse and human . Cell 150 366 – 376 . ( doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012

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Andrea Armani, Vincenzo Marzolla, Andrea Fabbri and Massimiliano Caprio

adipocytes, leading to the acquisition of brown fat features by WAT ( Wu et al . 2012 ), a process known as ‘browning.’ However, whether the beige cells represent a specific pool of adipose cells distinct from white adipocytes, or derive by conversion of

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Jaya Nautiyal

. BAT (extreme right) has smaller fat droplets and is abundant in mitochondria and generates heat. Loss of RIP140 from macrophages promotes the formation of Beige fat depots, which are adipocytes within the WAT that are intermediary between WAT and BAT

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K Alexander Iwen, Rebecca Oelkrug and Georg Brabant

these AMPK-malonly-CPT1 driven effects via activation of sympathetic efferences to the liver and BAT. In BAT, they ignite heat production, which is augmented by T3-dependent conversion of WAT to beige fat. In addition, it stimulates hepatic glucose