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Diana Vargas, Noriaki Shimokawa, Ryosuke Kaneko, Wendy Rosales, Adriana Parra, Ángela Castellanos, Noriyuki Koibuchi and Fernando Lizcano

the phenotypic plasticity of beige fat cells in adults has increased interest in the development of potential drugs to treat obesity and metabolic diseases ( Cannon & Nedergaard 2004 , Rosen & Spiegelman 2014 ). The origin of beige fat is unclear, but

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Christopher E Wall, Ruth T Yu, Anne R Atkins, Michael Downes and Ronald M Evans

). Comprehensively, these studies propose the therapeutic use of PPARδ-regulated adipokines to improve systemic metabolic homeostasis. PGC1α: promoting thermogenic metabolism in brown and beige fat PPARδ is also essential for the development and function of

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Jaya Nautiyal

. BAT (extreme right) has smaller fat droplets and is abundant in mitochondria and generates heat. Loss of RIP140 from macrophages promotes the formation of Beige fat depots, which are adipocytes within the WAT that are intermediary between WAT and BAT

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Susan M van den Berg, Andrea D van Dam, Pascal J H Kusters, Linda Beckers, Myrthe den Toom, Saskia van der Velden, Jan Van den Bossche, Irma van Die, Mariëtte R Boon, Patrick C N Rensen, Esther Lutgens and Menno P J de Winther

M-W Odegaard JI Mukundan L Qiu Y Molofsky AB Nussbaum JC Yun K Locksley RM Chawla A 2015 Activated type 2 innate lymphoid cells regulate beige fat biogenesis . Cell 160 74 – 87 . ( doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014

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K Alexander Iwen, Rebecca Oelkrug and Georg Brabant

these AMPK-malonly-CPT1 driven effects via activation of sympathetic efferences to the liver and BAT. In BAT, they ignite heat production, which is augmented by T3-dependent conversion of WAT to beige fat. In addition, it stimulates hepatic glucose

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Rose Kohlie, Nina Perwitz, Julia Resch, Sebastian M Schmid, Hendrik Lehnert, Johannes Klein and K Alexander Iwen

:10.1038/ijo.2010.178 ) Sidossis L Kajimura S 2015 Brown and beige fat in humans: thermogenic adipocytes that control energy and glucose homeostasis . Journal of Clinical Investigation 125 478 – 486 . ( doi:10.1172/JCI78362

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Andrea Armani, Vincenzo Marzolla, Andrea Fabbri and Massimiliano Caprio

Biological Chemistry 285 14663 – 14670 . ( doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.081679 ). Harms M Seale P 2013 Brown and beige fat: development, function and therapeutic potential . Nature Medicine 19 1252 – 1263 . ( doi:10.1038/nm.3361 ). Hirata A Maeda

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Jessica A Deis, Hong Guo, Yingjie Wu, Chengyu Liu, David A Bernlohr and Xiaoli Chen

.711556 ) 10.1074/jbc.M115.711556 Harms M Seale P 2013 Brown and beige fat: development, function and therapeutic potential . Nature Medicine 19 1252 – 1263 . ( https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.3361 ) 10.1038/nm.3361 Hernandez A de Mena RM Martin E

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Junye Chen, Yi Lu, Mengyuan Tian and Qiren Huang

.24.17184 ) 10.1074/jbc.274.24.17184 Harms M Seale P 2013 Brown and beige fat: development, function and therapeutic potential . Nature Medicine 19 1252 – 1263 . ( https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.3361 ) 10.1038/nm.3361 Hermeking H Benzinger A 2006 14

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David R Clemmons

2013 Inducible brown adipose tissue, or beige fat, is anabolic for the skeleton . Endocrinology 154 2687 – 2701 . ( https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2012-2162 ) 10.1210/en.2012-2162 23696565 Rajkumar K Modric T Murphy LJ 1999 Impaired